Ключевые слова:raw, socket, (найти похожие документы)
_ RU.LINUX (2:5077/15.22) ___________________________________________ RU.LINUX _
From : Sergey I. Clushin 2:5020/400 14 Apr 99 00:57:06
Subj : SOCK_RAW
From: "Sergey I. Clushin" <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Andrey Kuzmin wrote:
> >Использовать SOCK_PACKET.
> А можно поподробнее, т.к. когда я ставлю SOCK_PACKET вместо SOCK_RAW
Forum: The Linux Kernel Hackers' Guide
Re: Difference between SOCK_RAW SOCK_PACKET (Chris Leung)
Date: Wed, 10 Jun 1998 18:01:01 GMT
From: Eddie Leung <email@example.com>
Using the SOCK_PACKET mechanism in Linux
To Gain Complete Control of an Ethernet Interface
Amaranth Networks, Inc.
I have put together this web page in response to many queries from
multiple people. Rather than continue
to write individual responses, I have put together this page to explain
what I was trying to do, and how I
got it to work.
First, some background. To simulate software that was intended to run on
a different (and not yet built)
platform, I needed a convenient way to exercise the code against live
networks. I first tried using a
Solaris system, using the DLPI driver. This allowed me to do most things,
but failed when I needed to be
able to set the source Ethernet MAC address. The Solaris DLPI driver
provides no way to override the
hardware on a per-packet basis.
Next, I started looking at mechanisms in Linux. The mechanism that seemed
to fit the best was
SOCK_PACKET, which is used by tcpdump among other things. To Make this
work for me, though, it
was necessary to keep the Linux machine from doing anything on the
interface, other than letting my
programs at it.
How To Do It
This information and these instructions work for RedHat Linux 4.2 with a
2.0.30 kernel. I expect they'll
work fine on a 2.0.32 kernel as well, and with other Linux distributions.
I have heard that a better
mechanism for providing this facility is coming in a newer kernel. If or
when I get more information on
that, I'll see about adding another page on that.
First, the interface needs to be told NOT to run ARP. Promiscuous mode
should be enabled if you need
to hear everything on the wire.:
ifconfig eth1 -ARP PROMISC UP 10.1.1.1
Then tell the Linux stack it's not supposed to see any of the traffic to
or from this port:
ipfwadm -O -a deny -P all -S 0/0 -D 0/0 -W eth1
ipfwadm -I -a deny -P all -S 0/0 -D 0/0 -W eth1
In the program, you need to do several things. First, the socket call:
s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_PACKET, htons(0x0003));
to get the socket set up.
Next I bind the specific Ethernet NIC I want:
struct sockaddr myaddr;
memset(&myaddr, '\0', sizeof(myaddr));
myaddr.sa_family = AF_INET;
strcpy(myaddr.sa_data, "eth1"); /* or whatever device */
r = bind(s, &myaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
and check the return code for any errors.
Now, when you want to send or receive, this socket is bound to the proper
device. One word of caution,
though, ALWAYS check the received packets to be sure you got them on the
right device. There's a race
condition between making the socket call and the bind call where you'll
get all packets from ALL
interfaces... not what you want!
So, to send a packet:
struct sockaddr from;
memset(&from, '\0', sizeof(from));
from.sa_family = AF_INET;
strcpy(from.sa_data, "eth1"); /* or whatever device */
fromlen = sizeof(from);
r = sendto(s, msg, msglen, 0, &from, fromlen);
and check the return code. Note that msg is the pointer to the packet,
starting with the MAC header. Be
sure you put the proper source MAC address into your packets! Also,
msglen is the length of the packet
including the MAC header, but not including the CRC (which I do not worry
about, but the hardware does
Receive is pretty similar:
struct sockaddr from;
fromlen = sizeof(from);
r = recvfrom(s, msg, 2048, 0, &from, &fromlen);
if (r == -1)
/* deal with error */
(strcmp(from.sa_data, "eth1") != 0)
/* not from the interface we wanted, discard */
if r == -1, you have an error. If r > 0, then r is the length of the
received packet. The strcmp ensures
the packet came from the right interface.
If you want to receive for MAC addresses other than the one the board has
in it, use promiscuous mode.
To get the mac address from your program, there's an ioctl call
SIOCGIFHWADDR. In the return from
that call is also the hardware type, so you can ensure it's Ethernet.
Another call, SIOCGIFMTU will tell
you the MTU of the interface.
Do not use this methodology on your primary Ethernet interface.
Instead, install a second (and if
needed, third) NIC card for use in this way. I've successfully used 5
NIC cards in one machine, 1
under the control of Linux, the rest bypassed to my programs.
Be VERY sure you set up the ipfwadm commands. Failure to do so will
make a huge mess, likely
causing networking problems for other hosts on your lan.
If you found this information helpful and useful, please let me know. If
you require further information or
assistance in this area, this can be arranged. For consultation beyond
simple questions, Amaranth
Networks, Inc. can provide advice, services and information for a fee.
Copyright Э 1998, Amaranth Networks, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Предупреждение относительно primary eth можете смело игнорировать.
> то sendto возвращает -1 и ничего не посылает
И вообще, почему-бы Вам не посетить KHG - Kernel Hacker's Guide.
Раньше он была на http://www.redhat.com:8080/HyperNews/get/khg.html
Там в вопросах и ответах много ценного есть. В том числе и ответ на
Ваш вопрос: Difference between SOCK_RAW SOCK_PACKET.
> ... (галиматья выкинута)
Кушайте на здоровие. Да, еще можете посмотреть tcpdump. В его
исходниках етсь исходниоки libpcap, а в ней используется
SOCK_PACKET. Еще можете Стивенса почитать, последнюю редакцию;
там про SOCK_PACKET в Линухе тоже есть.
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