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formail ()
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    NAME
         formail - mail (re)formatter
    
    SYNOPSIS
         formail [+skip] [-total] [-vbczfrktedqBY] [-p prefix]
              [-D maxlen idcache]
              [-x headerfield] [-X headerfield]
              [-a headerfield] [-A headerfield]
              [-i headerfield] [-I headerfield]
              [-u headerfield] [-U headerfield]
              [-R oldfield newfield]
              [-n [maxprocs ]] [-m minfields] [-s [command [arg
         ...]]]
    
    DESCRIPTION
         formail is a filter that can be  used  to  force  mail  into
         mailbox  format,  perform  `From  ' escaping, generate auto-
         replying headers, do  simple  header  munging/extracting  or
         split    up    a    mailbox/digest/articles    file.     The
         mail/mailbox/article contents will be expected on stdin.
    
         If formail is supposed to determine the sender of the  mail,
         but is unable to find any, it will substitute `foo@bar'.
    
         If formail is started without any command line  options,  it
         will  force  any  mail coming from stdin into mailbox format
         and will escape all bogus `From ' lines with a `>'.
    
    OPTIONS
         -v   Formail will print its version number and exit.
    
         -b   Don't escape any  bogus  mailbox  headers  (i.e.  lines
              starting with `From ').
    
         -p prefix
              Define a different quotation prefix.  If unspecified it
              defaults to `>'.
    
         -Y   Assume traditional Berkeley  mailbox  format,  ignoring
              any Content-Length: fields.
    
         -c   Concatenate continued fields in the header.   Might  be
              convenient when postprocessing mail with standard (line
              oriented) text utilities.
    
    
    
         -z   Ensure a whitespace exists between field name and  con-
              tent.   Zap  fields  which  contain  only a single whi-
              tespace character.  Zap leading and trailing whitespace
              on fields extracted with -x.
    
         -f   Force formail to simply pass along any non-mailbox for-
              mat  (i.e.  don't  generate a `From ' line as the first
              line).
    
         -r   Generate an  auto-reply  header.   This  will  normally
              throw  away all the existing fields (except X-Loop:) in
              the original message, fields you wish to preserve  need
              to  be  named  using  the  -i  option.  If you use this
              option in conjunction with -k, you can prevent the body
              from being `escaped' by also specifying -b.
    
         -k   When generating the auto-reply header or when  extract-
              ing fields, keep the body as well.
    
         -t   Trust the sender to have used a valid return address in
              his  header.   This causes formail to select the header
              sender instead of the envelope sender  for  the  reply.
              This  option  should be used when generating auto-reply
              headers from news articles or when the  sender  of  the
              message is expecting a reply.
    
         -s   The input will be split up into separate mail messages,
              and  piped  into a program one by one (a new program is
              started for every part).  -s has to be the last  option
              specified,  the first argument following it is expected
              to be the name of a program, any other  arguments  will
              be  passed  along to it.  If you omit the program, then
              formail will simply concatenate the splitted  mails  on
              stdout again.  See FILENO.
    
         -n [maxprocs]
              Tell formail not to wait for every  program  to  finish
              before starting the next (causes splits to be processed
              in parallel).  Maxprocs optionally specifies  an  upper
              limit on the number of concurrently running processes.
    
         -e   Do not require empty lines to be preceding  the  header
              of  a  new  message  (i.e.  the messages could start on
              every line).
    
    
    
         -d   Tell formail that the messages it is supposed to  split
              need  not  be in strict mailbox format (i.e. allows you
              to split digests/articles or non-standard mailbox  for-
              mats).   This  disables  recognition  of  the  Content-
              Length: field.
    
         -B   Makes formail assume that it is splitting  up  a  BABYL
              rmail file.
    
         -m minfields
              Allows you to specify the number of consecutive header-
              fields formail needs to find before it decides it found
              the start of a new message, it defaults to 2.
    
         -q   Tells formail to (still  detect  but)  be  quiet  about
              write   errors,   duplicate   messages  and  mismatched
              Content-Length: fields.  This option is on by  default,
              to make it display the messages use -q-.
    
         -D maxlen idcache
              Formail will detect if the Message-ID  of  the  current
              message  has already been seen using an idcache file of
              approximately maxlen size.  If not splitting,  it  will
              return  success  if  a  duplicate  has  been found.  If
              splitting, it will not output duplicate  messages.   If
              used  in  conjunction with -r, formail will look at the
              mail address of the  envelope  sender  instead  at  the
              Message-ID.
    
         -x headerfield
              Extract the  contents  of  this  headerfield  from  the
              header, display it as a single line.
    
         -X headerfield
              Same as -x, but also preserves the field name.
    
         -a headerfield
              Append a custom headerfield onto the header;  but  only
              if  a similar field does not exist yet.  If you specify
              either one of the field names  Message-ID:  or  Resent-
              Message-ID:  with  no field contents, then formail will
              generate a unique message-ID for you.
    
         -A headerfield
              Append a custom headerfield  onto  the  header  in  any
              case.
    
    
    
         -i headerfield
              Same as -A, except that any existing similar fields are
              renamed  by  prepending an ``Old-'' prefix.  If header-
              field consists only of a field-name,  it  will  not  be
              appended.
    
         -I headerfield
              Same as -i, except that any existing similar fields are
              simply  removed.   If  headerfield  consists  only of a
              field-name, it effectively deletes the field.
    
         -u headerfield
              Make the first occurrence of  this  field  unique,  and
              thus delete all subsequent occurrences of it.
    
         -U headerfield
              Make the last occurrence of this field unique, and thus
              delete all preceding occurrences of it.
    
         -R oldfield newfield
              Renames all occurrences of the fieldname oldfield  into
              newfield.
    
         +skip
              Skip the first skip messages while splitting.
    
         -total
              Output at most total messages while splitting.
    
    NOTES
         When  renaming,  removing,  or  extracting  fields,  partial
         fieldnames may be used to specify all fields that start with
         the specified value.
    
         By default, when generating an  auto-reply  header  procmail
         selects the envelope sender from the input message.  This is
         correct for vacation messages and  other  automatic  replies
         regarding  the  routing or delivery of the original message.
         If the sender is expecting a reply or  the  reply  is  being
         generated  in  response to the contents of the original mes-
         sage then the -t option should be used.
    
         RFC822, the original standard governing the format of Inter-
         net  mail  messages,  did  not specify whether Resent header
         fields  (those  that   begin   with   `Resent-',   such   as
         `Resent-From:')  should  be  considered  when  generating  a
         reply.  Since then, the  recommended  usage  of  the  Resent
         headers has evolved to consider them as purely informational
         and not for use when normally  generating  a  reply.   While
         formail  now  ignores  Resent headers when generating header
         replies, versions of formail prior to 3.14 gave such headers
         a  high  precedence.   If  the  old  behavior  is needed for
         established applications it can be specified by calling for-
         mail  with the option `-a Resent-' in addition to the -r and
         -t options.  This usage is deprecated and should not be used
         in new applications.
    
    ENVIRONMENT
         FILENO
              While splitting, formail  assigns  the  message  number
              currently being output to this variable.  By presetting
              FILENO, you can change the initial message number being
              used  and  the  width  of  the  zero-padded output.  If
              FILENO is unset it will default to 000.  If  FILENO  is
              non-empty and does not contain a number, FILENO genera-
              tion is disabled.
    
    EXAMPLES
         To split up a digest one usually uses:
              formail +1 -ds >>the_mailbox_of_your_choice
         or
              formail +1 -ds procmail
    
         To remove all Received: fields from the header:
              formail -I Received:
    
         To remove all fields except  From:  and  Subject:  from  the
         header:
              formail -k -X From: -X Subject:
    
         To supersede the Reply-To: field in a header you could use:
              formail -i "Reply-To: foo@bar"
    
         To convert a non-standard mailbox file into a standard mail-
         box file you can use:
              formail -ds <old_mailbox >>new_mailbox
    
         Or, if you have a very tolerant mailer:
              formail -a Date: -ds <old_mailbox >>new_mailbox
    
         To extract the header from a message:
              formail -X ""
         or
              sed -e '/^$/ q'
    
         To extract the body from a message:
              formail -I ""
         or
              sed -e '1,/^$/ d'
    
    
    
    SEE ALSO
         mail(1), binmail(1), sendmail(8), procmail(1), sed(1),
         sh(1), RFC822, RFC1123
    
    DIAGNOSTICS
         Can't fork             Too many processes on this machine.
    
         Content-Length: field exceeds actual length by nnn bytes
                                The  Content-Length:  field  in   the
                                header  specified  a  length that was
                                longer than the  actual  body.   This
                                causes   this  message  to  absorb  a
                                number of subsequent messages follow-
                                ing it in the same mailbox.
    
         Couldn't write to stdout
                                The program that formail  was  trying
                                to  pipe  into  didn't accept all the
                                data formail sent to it;  this  diag-
                                nostic  can  be  suppressed by the -q
                                option.
    
         Duplicate key found: x The Message-ID or sender  x  in  this
                                message  was  found  in  the idcache;
                                this diagnostic can be suppressed  by
                                the -q option.
    
         Failed to execute "x"  Program not in path, or  not  execut-
                                able.
    
         File table full        Too many open files on this machine.
    
         Invalid field-name: "x"
                                The specified field-name "x" contains
                                control  characters,  or  cannot be a
                                partial field-name for this option.
    
    WARNINGS
         You can save yourself and others a lot of grief if  you  try
         to  avoid  using  this  autoreply  feature  on  mails coming
         through mailinglists.  Depending on the format of the incom-
         ing  mail  (which  in  turn  depends  on  both  the original
         sender's mail agent and the mailinglist setup) formail could
         decide  to  generate an autoreply header that replies to the
         list.
    
    
    
    BUGS
         When formail has to generate a leading `From ' line it  nor-
         mally  will  contain  the current date.  If formail is given
         the option `-a Date:', it will use the date from the `Date:'
         field  in  the  header (if present).  However, since formail
         copies it verbatim, the format will differ from that expect-
         ed by most mail readers.
    
         If formail is instructed to delete  or  rename  the  leading
         `From  '  line,  it  will not automatically regenerate it as
         usual.  To force formail to regenerate it in this case,  in-
         clude -a 'From '.
    
         If formail is not called as the first program in a pipe  and
         it  is  told to split up the input in several messages, then
         formail will not terminate until the program it receives the
         input from closes its output or terminates itself.
    
         If formail is instructed to generate an autoreply  mail,  it
         will never put more than one address in the `To:' field.
    
    MISCELLANEOUS
         Formail is eight-bit clean.
    
         When formail has to determine the  sender's  address,  every
         RFC822 conforming mail address is allowed.  Formail will al-
         ways strip down the address to its  minimal  form  (deleting
         excessive comments and whitespace).
    
         The regular expression that is used to find `real' postmarks
         is:
              "\n\nFrom [\t ]*[^\t\n ]+[\t ]+[^\n\t ]"
    
         If a Content-Length: field is found  in  a  header,  formail
         will copy the number of specified bytes in the body verbatim
         before resuming the regular scanning for message  boundaries
         (except when splitting digests or Berkeley mailbox format is
         assumed).
    
    NOTES
         Calling up formail with the -h or -? options will  cause  it
         to display a command-line help page.
    
    SOURCE
         This program is part of the procmail mail-processing-package
         (v3.15.1)    available    at   http://www.procmail.org/   or
         ftp.procmail.org in pub/procmail/.
    
    MAILINGLIST
         There exists a mailinglist for  questions  relating  to  any
         program in the procmail package:
              <procmail-users@procmail.org>
                   for submitting questions/answers.
              <procmail-users-request@procmail.org>
                   for subscription requests.
    
         If you would like to stay informed about  new  versions  and
         official patches send a subscription request to
              procmail-announce-request@procmail.org
         (this is a readonly list).
    
    AUTHORS
         Stephen R. van den Berg
              <srb@cuci.nl>
         Philip A. Guenther
              <guenther@sendmail.com>
    
    
    
    


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