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Интерактивная система просмотра системных руководств (man-ов)

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perlpod ()
  • >> perlpod (1) ( Solaris man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
  • perlpod (1) ( Разные man: Команды и прикладные программы пользовательского уровня )
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    NAME

         perlpod - plain old documentation
    
    
    

    DESCRIPTION

         A pod-to-whatever translator reads a pod file paragraph by
         paragraph, and translates it to the appropriate output
         format.  There are three kinds of paragraphs:  verbatim,
         command, and ordinary text.
    
         Verbatim Paragraph
    
         A verbatim paragraph, distinguished by being indented (that
         is, it starts with space or tab).  It should be reproduced
         exactly, with tabs assumed to be on 8-column boundaries.
         There are no special formatting escapes, so you can't
         italicize or anything like that.  A \ means \, and nothing
         else.
    
         Command Paragraph
    
         All command paragraphs start with "=", followed by an
         identifier, followed by arbitrary text that the command can
         use however it pleases.  Currently recognized commands are
    
             =head1 heading
             =head2 heading
             =item text
             =over N
             =back
             =cut
             =pod
             =for X
             =begin X
             =end X
    
    
         =pod
    
         =cut
             The "=pod" directive does nothing beyond telling the
             compiler to lay off parsing code through the next
             "=cut".  It's useful for adding another paragraph to the
             doc if you're mixing up code and pod a lot.
    
         =head1
    
         =head2
             Head1 and head2 produce first and second level headings,
             with the text in the same paragraph as the "=headn"
             directive forming the heading description.
    
    
         =over
    
         =back
    
         =item
             Item, over, and back require a little more explanation:
             "=over" starts a section specifically for the generation
             of a list using "=item" commands. At the end of your
             list, use "=back" to end it. You will probably want to
             give "4" as the number to "=over", as some formatters
             will use this for indentation.  This should probably be
             a default. Note also that there are some basic rules to
             using =item: don't use them outside of an =over/=back
             block, use at least one inside an =over/=back block, you
             don't _have_ to include the =back if the list just runs
             off the document, and perhaps most importantly, keep the
             items consistent: either use "=item *" for all of them,
             to produce bullets, or use "=item 1.", "=item 2.", etc.,
             to produce numbered lists, or use "=item foo", "=item
             bar", etc., i.e., things that looks nothing like bullets
             or numbers. If you start with bullets or numbers, stick
             with them, as many formatters use the first "=item" type
             to decide how to format the list.
    
         =for
    
         =begin
    
         =end
             For, begin, and end let you include sections that are
             not interpreted as pod text, but passed directly to
             particular formatters. A formatter that can utilize that
             format will use the section, otherwise it will be
             completely ignored.  The directive "=for" specifies that
             the entire next paragraph is in the format indicated by
             the first word after "=for", like this:
    
              =for html <br>
               <p> This is a raw HTML paragraph </p>
    
             The paired commands "=begin" and "=end" work very
             similarly to "=for", but instead of only accepting a
             single paragraph, all text from "=begin" to a paragraph
             with a matching "=end" are treated as a particular
             format.
    
             Here are some examples of how to use these:
    
              =begin html
    
              <br>Figure 1.<IMG SRC="figure1.png"><br>
    
              =end html
    
              =begin text
    
                ---------------
                |  foo        |
                |        bar  |
                ---------------
    
              ^^^^ Figure 1. ^^^^
    
              =end text
    
             Some format names that formatters currently are known to
             accept include "roff", "man", "latex", "tex", "text",
             and "html". (Some formatters will treat some of these as
             synonyms.)
    
             And don't forget, when using any command, that the
             command lasts up until the end of the paragraph, not the
             line. Hence in the examples below, you can see the empty
             lines after each command to end its paragraph.
    
             Some examples of lists include:
    
              =over 4
    
              =item *
    
              First item
    
              =item *
    
              Second item
    
              =back
    
              =over 4
    
              =item Foo()
    
              Description of Foo function
    
              =item Bar()
    
              Description of Bar function
    
              =back
    
    
    
         Ordinary Block of Text
    
         It will be filled, and maybe even justified.  Certain
         interior sequences are recognized both here and in commands:
    
             I<text>     Italicize text, used for emphasis or variables
             B<text>     Embolden text, used for switches and programs
             S<text>     Text contains non-breaking spaces
             C<code>     Render code in a typewriter font, or give some other
                         indication that this represents program text
             L<name>     A link (cross reference) to name
                             L<name>             manual page
                             L<name/ident>       item in manual page
                             L<name/"sec">       section in other manual page
                             L<"sec">            section in this manual page
                                                 (the quotes are optional)
                             L</"sec">           ditto
                         same as above but only 'text' is used for output.
                         (Text can not contain the characters '/' and '|',
                         and should contain matched '<' or '>')
                             L<text|name>
                             L<text|name/ident>
                             L<text|name/"sec">
                             L<text|"sec">
                             L<text|/"sec">
    
             F<file>     Used for filenames
             X<index>    An index entry
             Z<>         A zero-width character
             E<escape>   A named character (very similar to HTML escapes)
                             E<lt>               A literal <
                             E<gt>               A literal >
                             E<sol>              A literal /
                             E<verbar>           A literal |
                             (these are optional except in other interior
                              sequences and when preceded by a capital letter)
                             E<n>                Character number n (probably in ASCII)
                             E<html>             Some non-numeric HTML entity, such
                                                 as E<Agrave>
    
         Most of the time, you will only need a single set of angle
         brackets to delimit the beginning and end of interior
         sequences.  However, sometimes you will want to put a right
         angle bracket (or greater-than sign '>') inside of a
         sequence.  This is particularly common when using a sequence
         to provide a different font-type for a snippet of code.  As
         with all things in Perl, there is more than one way to do
         it.  One way is to simply escape the closing bracket using
         an `E' sequence:
    
             C<$a E<lt>=E<gt> $b>
    
         This will produce: "`$a <=> $b'"
    
         A more readable, and perhaps more "plain" way is to use an
         alternate set of delimiters that doesn't require a ">" to be
         escaped.  As of perl5.5.660, doubled angle brackets ("<<"
         and ">>") may be used if and only if there is whitespace
         immediately following the opening delimiter and immediately
         preceding the closing delimiter! For example, the following
         will do the trick:
    
             C<< $a <=> $b >>
    
         In fact, you can use as many repeated angle-brackets as you
         like so long as you have the same number of them in the
         opening and closing delimiters, and make sure that
         whitespace immediately follows the last '<' of the opening
         delimiter, and immediately precedes the first '>' of the
         closing delimiter.  So the following will also work:
    
             C<<< $a <=> $b >>>
             C<<<< $a <=> $b >>>>
    
         This is currently supported by pod2text (Pod::Text), pod2man
         (Pod::Man), and any other pod2xxx and Pod::Xxxx translator
         that uses Pod::Parser 1.093 or later.
    
         The Intent
    
         That's it.  The intent is simplicity, not power.  I wanted
         paragraphs to look like paragraphs (block format), so that
         they stand out visually, and so that I could run them
         through fmt easily to reformat them (that's F7 in my version
         of vi).  I wanted the translator (and not me) to worry about
         whether " or ' is a left quote or a right quote within
         filled text, and I wanted it to leave the quotes alone,
         dammit, in verbatim mode, so I could slurp in a working
         program, shift it over 4 spaces, and have it print out, er,
         verbatim.  And presumably in a constant width font.
    
         In particular, you can leave things like this verbatim in
         your text:
    
             Perl
             FILEHANDLE
             $variable
             function()
             manpage(3r)
    
         Doubtless a few other commands or sequences will need to be
         added along the way, but I've gotten along surprisingly well
         with just these.
    
         Note that I'm not at all claiming this to be sufficient for
         producing a book.  I'm just trying to make an idiot-proof
         common source for nroff, TeX, and other markup languages, as
         used for online documentation.  Translators exist for
         pod2man  (that's for nroff(1) and troff(1)), pod2text,
         pod2html, pod2latex, and pod2fm.
    
         Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
    
         You can embed pod documentation in your Perl scripts.  Start
         your documentation with a "=head1" command at the beginning,
         and end it with a "=cut" command.  Perl will ignore the pod
         text.  See any of the supplied library modules for examples.
         If you're going to put your pods at the end of the file, and
         you're using an __END__ or __DATA__ cut mark, make sure to
         put an empty line there before the first pod directive.
    
             __END__
    
             =head1 NAME
    
             modern - I am a modern module
    
         If you had not had that empty line there, then the
         translators wouldn't have seen it.
    
         Common Pod Pitfalls
    
         o   Pod translators usually will require paragraphs to be
             separated by completely empty lines.  If you have an
             apparently empty line with some spaces on it, this can
             cause odd formatting.
    
         o   Translators will mostly add wording around a L<> link,
             so that `L<foo(1)>' becomes "the foo(1) manpage", for
             example (see pod2man for details).  Thus, you shouldn't
             write things like `the L<foo> manpage', if you want the
             translated document to read sensibly.
    
             If you need total control of the text used for a link in
             the output use the form L<show this text|foo> instead.
    
         o   The podchecker command is provided to check pod syntax
             for errors and warnings. For example, it checks for
             completely blank lines in pod segments and for unknown
             escape sequences.  It is still advised to pass it
             through one or more translators and proofread the
             result, or print out the result and proofread that.
             Some of the problems found may be bugs in the
             translators, which you may or may not wish to work
             around.
    
    
    

    SEE ALSO

         the pod2man manpage, the PODs: Embedded Documentation entry
         in the perlsyn manpage, the podchecker manpage
    
    
    

    AUTHOR

         Larry Wall
    
    
    
    


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