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procmailex ()
  • >> procmailex (5) ( Solaris man: Форматы файлов )
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    NAME
         procmailex - procmail rcfile examples
    
    SYNOPSIS
         $HOME/.procmailrc examples
    
    DESCRIPTION
         For a description of the rcfile format see procmailrc(5).
    
         The weighted scoring technique is described in detail in the
         procmailsc(5) man page.
    
         This man page shows several example recipes.   For  examples
         of complete rcfiles you can check the NOTES section in proc-
         mail(1), or look at the example rcfiles part of the procmail
         source distribution (procmail*/examples/?procmailrc).
    
    EXAMPLES
         Sort out all mail coming from the  scuba-dive  mailing  list
         into   the  mailfolder  scubafile  (uses  the  locallockfile
         scubafile.lock).
    
              :0:
              * ^TOscuba
              scubafile
    
         Forward all mail from peter about compilers to william  (and
         keep a copy of it here in petcompil).
    
              :0
              * ^From.*peter
              * ^Subject:.*compilers
              {
                 :0 c
                 ! william@somewhere.edu
    
                 :0
                 petcompil
              }
    
         An equivalent solution that accomplishes the same:
    
              :0 c
              * ^From.*peter
              * ^Subject:.*compilers
              ! william@somewhere.edu
    
                 :0 A
                 petcompil
    
         An equivalent, but  slightly  slower  solution  that  accom-
         plishes the same:
              :0 c
              * ^From.*peter
              * ^Subject:.*compilers
              ! william@somewhere.edu
    
              :0
              * ^From.*peter
              * ^Subject:.*compilers
              petcompil
    
         If you are fairly new to procmail and plan to  experiment  a
         little bit it often helps to have a safety net of some sort.
         Inserting the following two recipes above all other  recipes
         will  make sure that of all arriving mail always the last 32
         messages will be preserved.  In order  for  it  to  work  as
         intended,  you  have to create a directory named `backup' in
         $MAILDIR prior to inserting these two recipes.
    
              :0 c
              backup
    
              :0 ic
              | cd backup && rm -f dummy `ls -t msg.* | sed -e 1,32d`
    
         If your system doesn't generate or generates incorrect lead-
         ing `From ' lines on every mail, you can fix this by calling
         up procmail with the -f- option.  To fix the same problem by
         different  means,  you could have inserted the following two
         recipes above all other recipes in your rcfile.   They  will
         filter  the  header  of  any mail through formail which will
         strip any leading `From ', and automatically regenerates  it
         subsequently.
    
              :0 fhw
              | formail -I "From " -a "From "
    
         Add the headers of all messages that didn't  come  from  the
         postmaster to your private header collection (for statistics
         or mail debugging); and use the lockfile  `headc.lock'.   In
         order  to  make  sure  the lockfile is not removed until the
         pipe has finished, you have to specify option `w'; otherwise
         the  lockfile  would  be  removed  as  soon  as the pipe has
         accepted the mail.
    
              :0 hwc:
              * !^FROM_MAILER
              | uncompress headc.Z; cat >>headc; compress headc
    
         Or, if you would use the  more  efficient  gzip  instead  of
         compress:
    
    
              :0 hwc:
              * !^FROM_MAILER
              | gzip >>headc.gz
    
         Forward all mails shorter than 1000 bytes to my home address
         (no lockfile needed on this recipe).
    
              :0
              * < 1000
              ! myname@home
    
         Split up incoming digests from the surfing mailing list into
         their  individual  messages,  and  store  them into surfing,
         using surfing.lock as the locallockfile.
    
              :0:
              * ^Subject:.*surfing.*Digest
              | formail +1 -ds >>surfing
    
         Store everything coming from the postmaster or mailer-daemon
         (like bounced mail) into the file postm, using postm.lock as
         the locallockfile.
    
              :0:
              * ^FROM_MAILER
              postm
    
         A simple autoreply recipe.  It makes sure that neither  mail
         from  any  daemon  (like bouncing mail or mail from mailing-
         lists), nor autoreplies coming from yourself will be autore-
         plied  to.   If this precaution would not be taken, disaster
         could result (`ringing' mail).  In order for this recipe  to
         autoreply  to  all  the  incoming mail, you should of course
         insert it before all other recipes in your rcfile.  However,
         it is advisable to put it after any recipes that process the
         mails from subscribed mailinglists; it generally  is  not  a
         good  idea to generate autoreplies to mailinglists (yes, the
         !^FROM_DAEMON regexp should already catch those, but if  the
         mailinglist  doesn't follow accepted conventions, this might
         not be enough).
    
              :0 h c
              * !^FROM_DAEMON
              * !^X-Loop: your@own.mail.address
              | (formail -r -I"Precedence: junk" \
                  -A"X-Loop: your@own.mail.address" ; \
                 echo "Mail received.") | $SENDMAIL -t
    
         A more complicated  autoreply  recipe  that  implements  the
         functional equivalent of the well known vacation(1) program.
         This recipe is based on the same principles as the last  one
         (prevent  `ringing'  mail).  In addition to that however, it
         maintains a vacation database by extracting the name of  the
         sender  and  inserting  it in the vacation.cache file if the
         name was new (the vacation.cache file is maintained by  for-
         mail  which  will make sure that it always contains the most
         recent names, the size of the file is limited to  a  maximum
         of  aproximately  8192  bytes).   If  the  name  was new, an
         autoreply will be sent.
    
         As you can see, the following recipe  has  comments  between
         the  conditions.   This  is allowed.  Do not put comments on
         the same line as a condition though.
    
              SHELL=/bin/sh    # for other shells, this might need adjustment
    
              :0 Whc: vacation.lock
               # Perform a quick check to see if the mail was addressed to us
              * $^To:.*\<$\LOGNAME\>
               # Don't reply to daemons and mailinglists
              * !^FROM_DAEMON
               # Mail loops are evil
              * !^X-Loop: your@own.mail.address
              | formail -rD 8192 vacation.cache
    
                :0 ehc         # if the name was not in the cache
                | (formail -rI"Precedence: junk" \
                     -A"X-Loop: your@own.mail.address" ; \
                   echo "I received your mail,"; \
                   echo "but I won't be back until Monday."; \
                   echo "-- "; cat $HOME/.signature \
                  ) | $SENDMAIL -oi -t
    
         Store  all  messages  concerning  TeX  in  separate,  unique
         filenames,  in a directory named texmail (this directory has
         to exist); there is no need to use lockfiles in  this  case,
         so we won't.
    
              :0
              * (^TO|^Subject:.*)TeX[^t]
              texmail
    
         The same as above, except now we store the mails in numbered
         files (MH mail folder).
    
              :0
              * (^TO|^Subject:.*)TeX[^t]
              texmail/.
    
         Or you could file the mail in several directory  folders  at
         the  same  time.  The following recipe will deliver the mail
         to two MH-folders and one directory folder.  It is  actually
         only one file with two extra hardlinks.
    
              :0
              * (^TO|^Subject:.*)TeX[^t]
              texmail/. wordprocessing dtp/.
    
         Store all the messages about meetings in a folder that is in
         a directory that changes every month.  E.g. if it were Janu-
         ary 1994, the folder would have the name `94-01/meeting' and
         the locallockfile would be `94-01/meeting.lock'.
    
              :0:
              * meeting
              `date +%y-%m`/meeting
    
         The same as above, but, if the  `94-01'  directory  wouldn't
         have existed, it is created automatically:
    
              MONTHFOLDER=`date +%y-%m`
    
              :0 Wic
              * ? test ! -d $MONTHFOLDER
              | mkdir $MONTHFOLDER
    
              :0:
              * meeting
              ${MONTHFOLDER}/meeting
    
         The same as above, but now by slightly different means:
    
              MONTHFOLDER=`date +%y-%m`
              DUMMY=`test -d $MONTHFOLDER || mkdir $MONTHFOLDER`
    
              :0:
              * meeting
              ${MONTHFOLDER}/meeting
    
         If you are subscribed to  several  mailinglists  and  people
         cross-post  to  some  of  them,  you usually receive several
         duplicate mails (one from every list).  The following simple
         recipe eliminates duplicate mails.  It tells formail to keep
         an 8KB cache file in which it will store the Message-IDs  of
         the  most  recent mails you received.  Since Message-IDs are
         guaranteed to be unique for every new mail, they are ideally
         suited  to weed out duplicate mails.  Simply put the follow-
         ing recipe at the top of your rcfile, and no duplicate  mail
         will get past it.
    
              :0 Wh: msgid.lock
              | formail -D 8192 msgid.cache
    
         Beware if you have delivery problems in recipes  below  this
         one and procmail tries to requeue the mail, then on the next
         queue run, this mail will be considered a duplicate and will
         be  thrown  away.  For those not quite so confident in their
         own scripting capabilities, you can use the following recipe
         instead.  It puts duplicates in a separate folder instead of
         throwing them away.  It is up to you to  periodically  empty
         the folder of course.
    
              :0 Whc: msgid.lock
              | formail -D 8192 msgid.cache
    
              :0 a:
              duplicates
    
         Procmail can deliver to MH folders directly,  but,  it  does
         not update the unseen sequences the real MH manages.  If you
         want procmail to update those as well, use a recipe like the
         following  which will file everything that contains the word
         spam in the body of the mail into an MH folder called  spam-
         fold.   Note  the local lockfile, which is needed because MH
         programs do not lock the sequences file.  Asynchronous invo-
         cations  of  MH  programs that change the sequences file may
         therefore corrupt  it  or  silently  lose  changes.   Unfor-
         tunately,  the lockfile doesn't completely solve the problem
         as rcvstore could be invoked while `show' or `mark' or  some
         other MH program is running.  This problem is expected to be
         fixed in some future version of MH, but until  then,  you'll
         have  to  balance  the  risk  of  lost  or corrupt sequences
         against the benefits of the unseen sequence.
    
              :0 :spamfold/$LOCKEXT
              * B ?? spam
              | rcvstore +spamfold
    
         When delivering to emacs folders (i.e.  mailfolders  managed
         by  any  emacs mail package, e.g. RMAIL or VM) directly, you
         should use emacs-compatible lockfiles.   The  emacs  mailers
         are  a bit braindamaged in that respect, they get very upset
         if someone delivers to mailfolders which they  already  have
         in  their  internal  buffers.   The following recipe assumes
         that $HOME equals /home/john.
    
              MAILDIR=Mail
    
              :0:/usr/local/lib/emacs/lock/!home!john!Mail!mailbox
              * ^Subject:.*whatever
              mailbox
    
         Alternatively, you can have procmail deliver  into  its  own
         set of mailboxes, which you then periodically empty and copy
         over to your emacs  files  using  movemail.   Movemail  uses
         mailbox.lock  local lockfiles per mailbox.  This actually is
         the preferred mode of operation in  conjunction  with  proc-
         mail.
         To extract certain headers from a mail  and  put  them  into
         environment  variables you can use any of the following con-
         structs:
    
              SUBJECT=`formail -xSubject:`    # regular field
              FROM=`formail -rt -xTo:`        # special case
    
              :0 h                            # alternate method
              KEYWORDS=| formail -xKeywords:
    
         If you are using temporary files in a procmailrc  file,  and
         want to make sure that they are removed just before procmail
         exits, you could use something along the lines of:
    
              TEMPORARY=$HOME/tmp/pmail.$$
              TRAP="/bin/rm -f $TEMPORARY"
    
         The TRAP keyword can also be used to change the exitcode  of
         procmail.   I.e.  if you want procmail to return an exitcode
         of `1' instead of its regular exitcodes, you could use:
    
              EXITCODE=""
              TRAP="exit 1;"   # The trailing semi-colon is important
                               # since exit is not a standalone program
    
         Or, if the exitcode does not need to depend on the  programs
         run from the TRAP, you can use a mere:
    
              EXITCODE=1
    
         The following recipe prints every incoming mail  that  looks
         like a postscript file.
    
              :0 Bb
              * ^^%!
              | lpr
    
         The following recipe does the same, but is a bit more selec-
         tive.   It  only prints the postscript file if it comes from
         the print-server.  The first condition matches only if it is
         found  in  the header.  The second condition only matches at
         the start of the body.
    
              :0 b
              * ^From[ :].*print-server
              * B ?? ^^%!
              | lpr
    
         The same as above, but now by slightly different means:
    
    
    
              :0
              * ^From[ :].*print-server
              {
                :0 B b
                * ^^%!
                | lpr
              }
    
         Likewise:
    
              :0 HB b
              * ^^(.+$)*From[ :].*print-server
              * ^^(.+$)*^%!
              | lpr
    
         Suppose you have two accounts, you use both  accounts  regu-
         larly,  but  they  are in very distinct places (i.e. you can
         only read mail that arrived at either one of the  accounts).
         You  would  like  to forward mail arriving at account one to
         account two, and the other way around.  The first thing that
         comes  to  mind  is using .forward files at both sites; this
         won't work of course, since you  will  be  creating  a  mail
         loop.   This  mail loop can be avoided by inserting the fol-
         lowing  recipe  in  front  of  all  other  recipes  in   the
         $HOME/.procmailrc  files  on  both  sites.  If you make sure
         that you add the same X-Loop: field at both sites, mail  can
         now  safely be forwarded to the other account from either of
         them.
    
              :0 c
              * !^X-Loop: yourname@your.main.mail.address
              | formail -A "X-Loop: yourname@your.main.mail.address" | \
                 $SENDMAIL -oi yourname@the.other.account
    
         If someone sends you a mail with the word `retrieve' in  the
         subject, the following will automatically send back the con-
         tents of info_file to the sender.  Like in all recipes where
         we send mail, we watch out for mail loops.
    
              :0
              * !^From +YOUR_USERNAME
              * !^Subject:.*Re:
              * !^FROM_DAEMON
              * ^Subject:.*retrieve
              | (formail -r ; cat info_file) | $SENDMAIL -oi -t
    
         Now follows an example for a very simple fileserver accessi-
         ble by mail.  For more demanding applications, I suggest you
         take a look at SmartList (available from the same  place  as
         the  procmail  distribution).   As  listed,  this fileserver
         sends back at most one file per request, it ignores the body
         of  incoming  mails,  the  Subject:  line  has  to look like
         "Subject: send file the_file_you_want" (the blanks are  sig-
         nificant), it does not return files that have names starting
         with a dot, nor does it allow files to be retrieved that are
         outside  the  fileserver  directory  tree  (if you decide to
         munge this example,  make  sure  you  do  not  inadvertently
         loosen this last restriction).
    
              :0
              * ^Subject: send file [0-9a-z]
              * !^X-Loop: yourname@your.main.mail.address
              * !^Subject:.*Re:
              * !^FROM_DAEMON
              * !^Subject: send file .*[/.]\.
              {
                MAILDIR=$HOME/fileserver # chdir to the fileserver directory
    
                :0 fhw                   # reverse mailheader and extract name
                * ^Subject: send file \/[^ ]*
                | formail -rA "X-Loop: yourname@your.main.mail.address"
    
                FILE="$MATCH"            # the requested filename
    
                :0 ah
                | cat - ./$FILE 2>&1 | $SENDMAIL -oi -t
              }
    
         The following example preconverts all plain-text mail arriv-
         ing  in  certain encoded MIME formats into a more compact 8-
         bit format which can be used and displayed  more  easily  by
         most   programs.    The  mimencode(1)  program  is  part  of
         Nathaniel Borenstein's metamail package.
    
              :0
              * ^Content-Type: *text/plain
              {
                :0 fbw
                * ^Content-Transfer-Encoding: *quoted-printable
                | mimencode -u -q
    
                   :0 Afhw
                   | formail -I "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit"
    
                :0 fbw
                * ^Content-Transfer-Encoding: *base64
                | mimencode -u -b
    
                   :0 Afhw
                   | formail -I "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit"
              }
    
         The following one is rather exotic, but it  only  serves  to
         demonstrate a feature.  Suppose you have a file in your HOME
         directory called ".urgent", and the (one)  person  named  in
         that file is the sender of an incoming mail, you'd like that
         mail to be stored in $MAILDIR/urgent instead of  in  any  of
         the  normal  mailfolders it would have been sorted in.  Then
         this is  what  you  could  do  (beware,  the  filelength  of
         $HOME/.urgent  should be well below $LINEBUF, increase LINE-
         BUF if necessary):
    
              URGMATCH=`cat $HOME/.urgent`
    
              :0:
              * $^From.*${URGMATCH}
              urgent
    
         An entirely different application for procmail would  be  to
         conditionally  apply filters to a certain (outgoing) text or
         mail.  A typical example would be a filter through which you
         pipe  all  outgoing mail, in order to make sure that it will
         be MIME encoded only if it needs to be.  I.e. in  this  case
         you could start procmail in the middle of a pipe like:
    
              cat newtext | procmail ./mimeconvert | mail chris@where.ever
    
         The mimeconvert rcfile could  contain  something  like  (the
         =0x80=  and =0xff= should be substituted with the real 8-bit
         characters):
    
              DEFAULT=|     # pipe to stdout instead of
                            # delivering mail as usual
              :0 Bfbw
              * [=0x80=-=0xff=]
              | mimencode -q
    
                :0 Afhw
                | formail -I 'MIME-Version: 1.0' \
                   -I 'Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1' \
                   -I 'Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable'
    
    SEE ALSO
         procmail(1), procmailrc(5), procmailsc(5), sh(1), csh(1),
         mail(1), mailx(1), binmail(1), uucp(1), aliases(5),
         sendmail(8), egrep(1), grep(1), biff(1), comsat(8),
         mimencode(1), lockfile(1), formail(1)
    
    
    
    AUTHORS
         Stephen R. van den Berg
              <srb@cuci.nl>
         Philip A. Guenther
              <guenther@sendmail.com>
    
    
    
    


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