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procmailsc ()
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    NAME
         procmailsc - procmail weighted scoring techique
    
    SYNOPSIS
         [*] w^x condition
    
    DESCRIPTION
         In addition to the traditional true or false conditions  you
         can  specify  on  a  recipe,  you can use a weighted scoring
         technique to decide if a  certain  recipe  matches  or  not.
         When  weighted  scoring  is used in a recipe, then the final
         score for that recipe must be positive for it to match.
    
         A certain condition can contribute to the score if you allo-
         cate  it  a `weight' (w) and an `exponent' (x).  You do this
         by preceding the condition (on the same line) with:
              w^x
         Whereas both w and x are real numbers between  -2147483647.0
         and 2147483647.0 inclusive.
    
    
    Weighted regular expression conditions
         The first time the regular expression is found, it will  add
         w  to  the  score.  The second time it is found, w*x will be
         added.  The third time it is found,  w*x*x  will  be  added.
         The fourth time w*x*x*x will be added.  And so forth.
    
         This can be described by the following concise formula:
    
                                   n
                   n   k-1        x - 1
              w * Sum x    = w * -------
                  k=1             x - 1
    
         It represents the total added score for this condition if  n
         matches are found.
    
         Note that the following case distinctions can be made:
    
         x=0     Only the first match will contribute w to the score.
                 Any subsequent matches are ignored.
    
         x=1     Every match will contribute the same w to the score.
                 The  score grows linearly with the number of matches
                 found.
    
    
    
         0<x<1   Every match will contribute less to the  score  than
                 the  previous  one.   The  score will asymptotically
                 approach a certain  value  (see  the  NOTES  section
                 below).
    
         1<x     Every match will contribute more to the  score  than
                 the  previous one.  The score will grow exponention-
                 ally.
    
         x<0     Can be utilised to favour  odd  or  even  number  of
                 matches.
    
         If the regular expression is negated  (i.e.  matches  if  it
         isn't found), then n obviously can either be zero or one.
    
    Weighted program conditions
         If the program returns an  exitcode  of  EXIT_SUCCESS  (=0),
         then  the  total  added  score will be w.  If it returns any
         other exitcode (indicating failure), the total  added  score
         will be x.
    
         If the  exitcode  of  the  program  is  negated,  then,  the
         exitcode  will  be considered as if it were a virtual number
         of matches.  Calculation of the added score then proceeds as
         if it had been a normal regular expression with n=`exitcode'
         matches.
    
    Weighted length conditions
         If the length of the actual mail is M then:
    
              * w^x  > L
    
         will generate an additional score of:
    
                         x
                  /  M  \
              w * | --- |
                  \  L  /
    
         And:
    
              * w^x  < L
    
         will generate an additional score of:
    
                         x
                  /  L  \
              w * | --- |
                  \  M  /
    
         In both cases, if L=M, this will add w to the score.  In the
         former  case  however, larger mails will be favoured, in the
         latter case, smaller mails will be favoured.  Although x can
         be  varied to fine-tune the steepness of the function, typi-
         cal usage sets x=1.
    
    MISCELLANEOUS
         You can query the final score of all  the  conditions  on  a
         recipe  from  the environment variable $=.  This variable is
         set every time just after procmail has parsed all conditions
         on a recipe (even if the recipe is not being executed).
    
    EXAMPLES
         The following recipe will ditch all mails having  more  than
         150  lines  in  the  body.   The first condition contains an
         empty regular expression which, because it  always  matches,
         is  used  to  give  our score a negative offset.  The second
         condition then matches every line in the mail, and  consumes
         up  the  previous  negative  offset  we  gave (one point per
         line).  In the end, the score will only be positive  if  the
         mail contained more than 150 lines.
    
              :0 Bh
              * -150^0
              *    1^1  ^.*$
              /dev/null
    
         Suppose you have a priority folder  which  you  always  read
         first.   The  next  recipe  picks  out the priority mail and
         files them in this special folder.  The first condition is a
         regular  one,  i.e.  it doesn't contribute to the score, but
         simply has to be satisfied.  The other  conditions  describe
         things  like:  john and claire usually have something impor-
         tant to say, meetings are  usually  important,  replies  are
         favoured a bit, mails about Elvis (this is merely an example
         :-) are favoured (the more he is  mentioned,  the  more  the
         mail  is  favoured, but the maximum extra score due to Elvis
         will be 4000, no matter how often he is mentioned), lots  of
         quoted  lines  are  disliked,  smileys  are appreciated (the
         score for those will reach a maximum of 3500),  those  three
         people  usually  don't  send  interesting  mails,  the mails
         should preferably be small (e.g. 2000 bytes long mails  will
         score  -100, 4000 bytes long mails do -800).  As you see, if
         some of the uninteresting people send mail,  then  the  mail
         still  has  a chance of landing in the priority folder, e.g.
         if it is about a meeting, or if it  contains  at  least  two
         smileys.
    
    
    
              :0 HB
              *         !^Precedence:.*(junk|bulk)
              * 2000^0   ^From:.*(john@home|claire@work)
              * 2000^0   ^Subject:.*meeting
              *  300^0   ^Subject:.*Re:
              * 1000^.75 elvis|presley
              * -100^1   ^>
              *  350^.9  :-\)
              * -500^0   ^From:.*(boss|jane|henry)@work
              * -100^3   > 2000
              priority_folder
    
         If you are subscribed to a mailinglist, and just would  like
         to  read the quality mails, then the following recipes could
         do the trick.  First we make sure that the  mail  is  coming
         from  the  mailinglist.  Then we check if it is from certain
         persons of whom we value the opinion, or about a subject  we
         absolutely  want  to  know everything about.  If it is, file
         it.  Otherwise, check if the ratio of quoted lines to origi-
         nal  lines  is  at  most 1:2.  If it exceeds that, ditch the
         mail.  Everything that survived the previous test, is filed.
    
              :0
              ^From mailinglist-request@some.where
              {
                :0:
                * ^(From:.*(paula|bill)|Subject:.*skiing)
                mailinglist
    
                :0 Bh
                *  20^1 ^>
                * -10^1 ^[^>]
                /dev/null
    
                :0:
                mailinglist
              }
    
         For further examples you should look  in  the  procmailex(5)
         man page.
    
    CAVEATS
         Because this speeds up the search by an order of  magnitude,
         the procmail internal egrep will always search for the left-
         most shortest match, unless it is determining what to assign
         to  MATCH,  in  which  case it searches the leftmost longest
         match.  E.g. for the leftmost shortest match, by itself, the
         regular expression:
    
    
    
         .*   will always match a zero  length  string  at  the  same
              spot.
    
         .+   will always match one  character  (except  newlines  of
              course).
    
    SEE ALSO
         procmail(1), procmailrc(5), procmailex(5), sh(1), csh(1),
         egrep(1), grep(1),
    
    BUGS
         If, in a length condition, you specify an x that  causes  an
         overflow, procmail is at the mercy of the pow(3) function in
         your mathematical library.
    
         Floating point numbers in `engineering' format  (e.g.  12e5)
         are not accepted.
    
    MISCELLANEOUS
         As soon as `plus infinity' (2147483647) is reached, any sub-
         sequent weighted conditions will simply be skipped.
    
         As soon as `minus infinity' (-2147483647)  is  reached,  the
         condition  will  be  considered as `no match' and the recipe
         will terminate early.
    
    NOTES
         If in a regular expression weighted formula 0<x<1, the total
         added score for this condition will asymptotically approach:
    
                 w
              -------
               1 - x
    
         In order to reach half the maximum value you need
    
                   - ln 2
              n = --------
                     ln x
    
         matches.
    
    AUTHORS
         Stephen R. van den Berg
              <srb@cuci.nl>
         Philip A. Guenther
              <guenther@sendmail.com>
    
    
    
    


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