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- alt.spam FAQ (1/1) or "Figuring out fake E-Mail & Posts". Rev 20001127

This posting describes how to find out where a fake post or e-mail originated from.
Archive-name: net-abuse-faq/spam-faq
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 20001127

Greetings and Salutations:

This FAQ will help in deciphering which machine a fake e-Mail or post 
came from, and who (generally or specifically) you should contact.

The three sections to this twelve portion FAQ (With apologies to 
Douglas Adams :-)) :

   o   Introduction
   o   Tracing an e-mail message
          o   MAILING LIST messages
   o   Reporting Spam and tracing a posted message
   o   WWW IP Lookup URL's
   o   Converting that IP to a name
          o   What to do with "strange" looking Web links
          o   Getting a World Wide Web page busted
   o   A list of Usenet complaint addresses
          o   Fraud on the Internet and The MMF (Make Money Fast) 
          o   Trying to catch the suspect still logged on
   o   Filtering E-Mail BlackMail, procmail or News with Gnus
          o   Rejecting E-Mail from domains that continue to Spam
   o   Misc. (Because I can't spell miscellaneous :-)) stuff
       I couldn't think to put anywhere else.
          o   Origins of Spam
          o   How *did* I get this unsolicited e-mail anyway?
          o   How To Respond to Spam
          o   Firewalls and protecting your computer
   o   Revenge - What to do & not to do (mostly not)
          o   Telephoning someone
          o   Snail Mailing someone
   o   1-900, 1-800, 888, 877 and 1-### may be expensive long distance 
phone calls
   o   Junk Mail - The Law
   o   Additional Resources - Lots Of Links and a *really* good book

Please feel free to repost this, e-mail it, put this FAQ on CD's or 
any other media you can think of.

The latest & greatest version of the Spam FAQ is found at:

PLEASE email follow-ups, additions / changes to

My news source is OK, but I sometimes miss items.

I accept all and any input.  I consider myself to be the manager of 
this FAQ for the good of everyone, not the absolute & controlling 
Owner Of The FAQ.  I do not always write in a completely coherent 
manner.  What makes sense to me may not make sense to others.  If the 
community wants something added or deleted, I will do so.  I removed 
any e-mail and last name references to someone making a suggestion / 
addition.  This is so that someone doesn't get upset at this FAQ and 
do something stupid.  If you don't mind having your e-mail in this FAQ 
(or where it is required), please tell me and I will add it back in.

First off if you received a spam (Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail) there 
is no "easy" way to get the spam stopped.  Generally if you reply 
(unsubscribe) all this does is confirm that your e-mail address is 
"live" and just gets your e-mail address sold to other spammers.  Spam 
has to be delt with one at a time.  Sorry, it isn't easy to stop the 
spam.  The "Internet" (the collective non-profit and profit entities 
of the network) is trying to fix this problem but it is taking time.

Before trying to determine where the post or e-mail originated from, 
you should realize that (just like the The National Enquirer or a logical argument from Canter and 
Siegel) the message will have *some* amount of truth, but all or most 
of the information may be forged.  Be careful before accusing someone.

Commands used in this FAQ are UNIX & VMS commands.  Sorry if they 
don't work for you, you might wish to try looking around at your 
commands to find an equivalent command (or I might be able to help out 
some).  There are programs for the Macintosh and Windows machines that 
do the same thing the UNIX commands do, see the above URL's for where 
to locate this software.

And no, I am not going to tell you how to post a fake message or fake 
e-mail.  It only took me about 2 days (a few hours a day) to figure it 
out.  It ain't difficult.  RTFM (or more appropriately, Read The 
@&%^@# RFC).

Every e-mail or post will have a point at which it was injected into 
the information stream.  E-mail will have a real computer from which 
it was passed along.  Likewise a post will have a news server that 
started passing the post.  You need to get cooperation of the 
postmaster at the sites the message passed thru.  Then you can get 
information from the logs telling you what sites the message actually 
passed thru, and where the message "looked" like it passed thru (but 
actually didn't).  Of course you do have to have the cooperation of 
all the postmasters in a string of sites...

        Tracing an e-mail message

To trace the e-mail you have to look at the header.  Most mail readers 
do not show the header because it contains information that is for 
computer to computer routing.  The information you usually see from 
the header is the subject, date and the "From" / "Return" address.  
About the only thing in an e-mail header that can't be faked is the 
"Received" portion referencing your computer (the last received).

You will need to take a look at the headers on the message as follows 
(Thanks to Michael, Piers and others) :
Claris E-Mailer - under Mail select Show Long Headers.
Eudora (before ver. 3) - Select Tools , Options... , then Fonts & 
Display then Show all headers
Eudora (ver. 3.x, 4.x IBM or Macintosh) - Press the BLAH button on the 
incoming mail message
HotMail - To expose the full message header, click "Options" on the 
Hotmail Navigation Bar on the left side of the page. On the Options 
page, click "Preferences." Scroll down to "Message Headers" and select 
For Lotus Notes 4.6.x - From the menu bar, select Actions, then 
Delivery Information. Copy the information from the bottom box into 
your e-mail report at the top of the spam.
For Lotus Notes R5 - From the menu bar, select Actions, then Tools, 
then Delivery Information. Copy the information from the bottom box 
into your e-mail report at the top of the spam.
MS Outlook - Double click on the email in your inbox. This will bring 
the message into a window. Click on View - Options.  You can also open 
a message then choose File....Properties....Details.
MS Outlook Express - Alt-Enter, or Alt-F then R.
MS Outlook Express - More Detailed:
                To look for, copy and send headers In Outlook Express 
                1- Press CTRL F3
                2- Press CTRL A 
                3- Press CTRL C
                4- Press Alt F4. (At this point the message is already 
                5- Open a new message. Right click and paste or select 
Edit and paste.
Netscape 3 - In the Netscape Mail window, click View/Document Source.
Netscape 4.xx - Double click on the email in your inbox. Click on View 
- Headers - All.
PINE - You have to turn on the header option in setup, then just hit 
"h" to get headers.

Programs that do not comply with any Internet standards (like cc-Mail, 
Beyond Mail, VAX VMS) throw away the headers.  You will not be able to 
get headers from these e-mail messages.

Aussie tells us that in Pegasus to view the full headers for each 
message, use CTRL-H. This will show the full headers for the 
particular message, but will not add them to any reply or forward. You 
need to cut/paste the message into the reply/forward to send these 

Richard tells us with Nettamer, a MS DOS based email and USENET group 
reader you must save the message as an ASCII file, then the full 
header will be displayed when you open the saved file with your 
favorite ASCII editor.

At this point if you are "pushing the envelope" on your ability to 
figure out how to get that complaint to the correct person, I would 
suggest joining the Usenet group alt.spam or and post the message with a title like "Please help me 
decipher this header".  Unfortunately there is no "single" place to 
complain to about spam (or Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail).  Complaints 
have to be directed to the correct ISP (Internet Service Provider) 
that the spam originated from.  See the below section entitled 
"Reporting spam".

URL's to help you figure out how to look at the headers:

A little different description of headers: - Another Header Analysis - In depth header 

There is spamming software that sends the e-mail directly to your 
computer.  This makes only one received line in the e-mail making your 
life many times easier.  The computer that is not your computer is the 
spamming computer.

Also, please look through the body of the message for e-mail addresses 
to reply to.  Complain to the postmasters of those sites also (see 
below for a list of complaint addresses).

Gregory tells us that assuming a reasonably standard and recent 
sendmail setup, a Received line that looks like :

Received: from host1 (host2 [ww.xx.yy.zz]) by host3
        (8.7.5/8.7.3) with SMTP id MAA04298; Thu, 18 Jul 1996 12:18:06 

shows four pieces of useful information (reading from back to front, 
in order of decreasing reliability):
 - The host that added the Received line (host3)
 - The IP address of the incoming SMTP connection (ww.xx.yy.zz)
 - The reverse-DNS lookup of that IP address (host2)
 - The name the sender used in the SMTP HELO command when they
   connected (host1).

Looking at the below we see 6 received lines.  Received lines are like 
links in a chain.  The message is passed from one computer to the next 
with no breaks in the chain.  The received lines indicate that it 
ended up at (my computer) from  It 
was received at from unknown (HELO paul-s.-aiello) 
([]).  The last three lines suggests that it was 
received at in2.| from mh.tomsurl|.com and from 
reb50.rs41|  Since none of these computers are in the first 
two received lines then we can ignore these lines and every received 
entry after this line (this UCE had 4 or 5 more faked Received lines 
in it that were deleted for this example).  We also know that these 
lines are faked because no domain name has a "|" character in the 
name.  Domain names only have alphabetic or numeric characters in the 

Do not get confused by the "Received: from unknown" portion.  The word 
"unknown" can be *anything* and should be ignored, this is whatever 
the spammer put in the SMTP HELO command when they connected to the 
SMTP server.

Received: from ( 
[]) by (8.9.1a/8.9.1) with SMTP id 
CAA10768 for <>; Thu, 26 Nov 1998 02:55:11 -0500 
Received: (qmail 25259 invoked from network); 26 Nov 1998 08:05:49 -
Received: from unknown (HELO paul-s.-aiello) ([])  by with SMTP; 26 Nov 1998 08:05:49 -0000
Received: (from uudp@lcl|lhost) by in2.| (8.6.9/8.6.9) id 
CFF569794 for <suppressed>; Thursday, November 26, 1998
Received: from tomsurl|.com (mh.tomsurl|.com []) by 
m4.tomsurl|.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id PAA21932 Thursday, 
November 26, 1998
Received: from reb50.rs41| (root@reb50.rs41| 
[]) by tomsurl|.com (8.6.12/8.6.12) with ESMTP id 
PBA023891 for <suppressed>;

So we complain to whomever owns unknown (HELO paul-s.-aiello) 
([]).  Make sure that you do a nslookup (or use , put the address in the section "address 
digger", click on Whois IP block and Traceroute and click on "do 
stuff") on the IP address's.  I try to verify is paul-
s.-aiello.  Indeed paul-s.-aiello does not even exist and does not resolve to a name when I do a NSLookup.  Next 
would be a traceroute.  See further below for more in-depth tracking 
on resolving an IP.

IP portion =

Traceroute gives us:
Step  Host                          IP
Find route from: to: (, Max 30 
hops, 40 byte packets
13   ( ):   235ms
14          (  ):   272ms
15                   ( ):   279ms
16     (   ):   362ms
17  (  ):   195ms
18        (   ):   230ms
19             (  ):   231ms
20 *     *     *
21                  (   372ms

See the traceroute section below for how to interpret the "*" (and 
other codes) that are returned from a traceroute.

Note - if you see something like the following realize that the only 
portion you can trust is within the "([" and the "])".  The spammer 
put in the (faked) portion " (" :
Received: from ( ([]) 

Kamiel tells us that you might also want to make sure that the IP is 
not hosted by an intermediary site.  Check it out at:

You should complain to the abuse@ or postmaster@<Last Two or Three 
words at the end of the name>.  I would complain to OR (but NOT both sites) since after looking below at the 
list of complaint addresses in this FAQ there are no alternate 
addresses for or  Unless it is a "major provider" 
(someone in the below complaint list) I usually complain to the 
upstream provider rather than risk the chance of complaining to the 
spammer and being ignored.  If you go too far up the chain, however, 
it may take quite some time for the complaint to filter down to the 
correct person.

Louise tells us that you are entitled to make an 'alleged' accusation 
but to prevent yourself from being libel, prefix your statement with:-
"Without prejudice: I suspect you are the culprit of such and such."

The constitutional and legal boundary of 'Without prejudice' exempts 
Politician's opinions being spoken publicly and this prefix is often 
adopted by Solicitors (English) or Lawyers/Attorneys (USA).

I use :
abuse@XXXXX - Without prejudice I submit to you this Unsolicited 
Commercial E-Mail is from your user XXXX.  UCE is unappreciated 
because it costs my provider (and ultimately myself) money to process 
just like an unsolicited FAX.  Please look into this.  Thank you.

BE SURE to verify the IP address.  Windows '95 machines place the name 
of the machine as the "name" and place the real IP address after the 
name, meaning a spammer can give a legitimate "name" of someone else 
to get someone innocent in trouble.  A spammer at cyberpromo changed 
their SMTP HELO so that it claimed to be from Compuserve.  The 
Received line looked like the below, but a quick verification of the 
IP address showed it was indeed from cyberpromo :

Received: from ( []) 

The below e-mail was passed to me thru a "mule" ( 
[]).  The Spammer hijacked an open SMTP port to reroute e-
mail to me:
Received: from ( []) by (8.9.1a/8.9.1) with ESMTP id GAA06372; Fri, 27 Nov 
1998 06:53:20 -0500 (EST)
Received: from ([]) by (Netscape 
Messaging Server 3.54)  with SMTP id AAT2FEA; Fri, 27 Nov 1998 
08:46:07 -0200

A NSLookup on resolves to, so after I complain to I also send the postmaster of the open SMTP port the 
following :
postmaster@XXXXX - Your SMTP mail server XXXXX was used as a mule to 
pass (and waste your system resources) this e-mail on to me.  You can 
stop your SMTP port from allowing rerouting of e-mail back outside of 
your domain if you wish to.  FYI only.  Info on how to block your 
server, see: - Test for server vulnerability

There are some systems that "claim" to "cloak" e-mail.  It is not 
true.  If you receive one that looks like the following :

Received: from (root@[]) by (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id KAA28969 for 
<>; Thu, 26 Jun 1997 10:41:46 -0400 (EDT)
Received: from --- CLOAKED! ---
Received: from ([]) by 
(8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id HAA06250 for <>; Mon, 
25 Jan 1999 07:11:18 -0500 (EST)
Received: from

It is still broken down as follows :
 - The route the e-mail took originated from one of the systems above 
the line marked "cloaked" or the line "untraceable" (in fact this 
makes it even easier to trace).  There is no magic to it.  Complain to 
that provider.  If you get no response from the site that spammed, you 
should ask your provider to no longer allow the above site 
[] to connect to your system.

It has been kindly pointed out to me that there is a "feature" (read 
"bug") in the UNIX mail spool wherein the person e-mailing you a 
message can append a "message" (with the headers) to the end of their 
message.  It makes the mail reader think you have 2 messages when the 
joker that sent the original message only sent one message (with a 
fake message appended).  If the headers look *really* screwy, you 
might look at the message before the screwy message and consider if it 
may not be a "joke" message.

There are also IBM mainframes and misconfigured Sun Sendmail machines 
(SMI-8.6/SMI-SVR4) that do not include the machine that they received 
the SMTP traffic from.  You have to route the message (with headers) 
back to the postmaster at that system and ask them to tell you what 
the IP of the machine is that hooked into their system for that 

An example of a Microsoft Exchange server that the "HELO" transaction 
is taken as the "From" portion (and is completely false) :
Received: from ( [])
	by (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id KAA06614	for 
<>; Thu, 26 Aug 1999 10:51:31 -0400 (EDT)
Received: from FIREWALL ([]) by with 
SMTP (Microsoft Exchange Internet Mail Service Version 5.5.2448.0)
	id QW11TJV1; Thu, 26 Aug 1999 16:44:38 +0200

It has also been pointed out that someone on your server can telnet 
back to the mail port and send you mail.  This also makes the forgery 
virtually untraceable by you, but as always your admin should be able 
to catch the telnet back to the server.  If they telnet to a foreign 
SMTP server and then use the "name" of a user on that system, it may 
appear to you that the message came from that user.  Be very careful 
when making assumptions about where the e-mail came from.

Note for AOL users when looking at headers:
If you get double headers at the end of a message (like the below) the 
spammer has tacked on a extra set of headers to confuse the issue.  
Ignore everything except the last set of headers.  These are the 
*real* headers.

------------------ Headers --------------------------------
Return-Path: <>
Received: from ( 
[]) (v51.16) with SMTP; Mon, 16 
Nov 1998 19:16:02 1900
Received: from ( []) by (8.8.8/8.8.5/AOL-4.0.0) with ESMTP id TAA05189;
Mon, 16 Nov 1998 19:15:53 -0500 (EST)
Received: from ([]) by 
(8.8.8/8.8.8) with SMTP id BAA14174; Tue, 17 Nov 1998 01:15:50 +0100 
Received: from by 
viaSMTP(950413.SGI.8.6.12/940406.SGI.AUTO) id AAA28586; Tue, 17 Nov 
1998 00:53:13 +0100
Message-Id: <>
Date: Mon, 16 Nov 98 18:27:19 EST

------------------- Headers --------------------------------
Return-Path: <>
Received: from ( 
[]) by (v56.14) with SMTP; Mon, 11 Jan 
1999 23:54:48 -0500
Received: from ([])
	  by (8.8.8/8.8.5/AOL-4.0.0)
	  with SMTP id XAA01327;
	  Mon, 11 Jan 1999 23:51:03 -0500 (EST)
From: <>
To: <>
Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1998 20:54:19 -0600
Message-ID: <>
Subject: Life insurance, do you have it?
Mime-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

        MAILING LIST messages

Stephanie kindly defines MAILING LIST versus LISTSERVER :

A MAILING LIST is a type of email distribution in which email is sent 
to a fixed site which holds a list of email recipients and mail is 
distributed to those recipients automatically (or through a 

A LISTSERVER is a software program designed to manage one or more 
mailing lists.  One of the more popular packages is named "LISTSERV".  
Besides Listserv, other popular packages include Listproc which is a 
Unix Listserv clone (Listservs originated on BITNET), Majordomo and 
Mailserve.  Most importantly -- not all mailing lists run on 
listservers, there are many mailing lists that are manually managed.

You may hear of mailing lists being referred to as many things, some 
strange, some which on the surface make sense, like "email discussion 
groups".  But this isn't accurate either, since not all mailing lists 
are set up for discussion.

Istvan suggests "Majordomo software is remarkably funny about headers.  
It does not like headers which contain anything odd. All messages the 
software receives which do not conform to its rigorous standards are 
simply forwarded to the list moderator.  It turns out this feature is 
effective at stopping between 80 and 90% of spam actually getting to 
the list."

Kirk tells us that you can set majordomo up so that new subscribers 
have to reply to a subscribe request, thus verifying the address is 
legit.  Additionally the lists can be configured so that only 
subscribers can post.  And finally you can put filters on content.  
I've got the list I manage configured to reject multipart email and 
email which contains html.

Richard mentions "Listserv can be configured to restrict non-members 
from sending to a list and can restrict spam based on the headers 
similar to Majordomo.  I've used both of these features successfully.  
You can read more about Listserv capabilities, if you are interested, 
at: (info on its spam 
I suspect that Listserv's spam filter may be better than Majordomo's 
(but I've not managed any Majordomo lists)."

Example Header appears below:
Received: from ( []) by (8.7.5/8.6.9) with SMTP id GAA27292 for <>; 
Sun, 5 May 1996 06:31:15 +0900 (JST)
Received: from by with SMTP (PP) using DNS  
id <>; Sat, 4 May 1996 20:56:49 +0100
Received: from (actually by  with SMTP (PP); Sat, 4 May 1996 21:13:03 +0100
Received: by (8.6.12/8.6.12) id PAA29156; Sat, 4 
May 1996 15:35:53 -0400
Date: Sat, 4 May 1996 15:35:53 -0400
Message-ID: <>
Subject: CRaZy Complimentary Offer........

This is a post from Kevin Lipsitz for his "===>> FREE 1 yr. USA 
Magazine Subscriptions". The latest information indicates that the 
state of New York has told him he should stop abusing the Internet for 
a while ... lets hope it is forever.  In relation to the Internet he 
makes a slimy used car salesman look like a saint.

For more info about "Krazy Kevin" or the Magazine Spam , Tony tells us 
the page "Stop Spam!" is available in html format at:

But as David reminds us, There are a million Kevin J. Lipsitz's out 
there.  All selling magazines, Amway, vitamins, phone service, etc.  
All the losers who want to get rich quick, but can't start their own 
Like :

That having been said, e-mail from a Listserve can usually be broken 
down the same way as "normal" e-mail headers.  There are just more 
waypoints along the way.  As you can see from the above, the e-mail 
originated from :

You might with to also direct the listserve owner to look at & ask 
questions in about how to keep spam off the 
listserve.  It probably won't be all that difficult of a thing to do.

 Reporting Spam and tracing a posted message
If someone posts a message with your e-mail in the From: or Reply-To: 
field, it can (and will if you request) be canceled.  Please repost 
the message to WITH THE HEADERS (or it will 
probably be ignored) so that the message cam be canceled (the message-
id is the most important) with a suggested subject of the following:

Subject: FORGERY <Subject from the Spam message>

Or you can look at the Cancel FAQ at :

Try to make sure that the message has not already been posted to, or and that it is less than 4 or 5 days old.  
Chris reminds us that yes, there are a lot of annoying, off-topic and 
stupid postings out there.  But that doesn't make it spam.  _Really_.  
All we're concerned with is _volume_.   Don't report any potential 
spams unless you see at least two copies in at least 4 groups.  The 
content is irrelevant.  Spam canceling cannot be by content.

For off topic posts, see

The first thing to do is to post the ENTIRE message (PLEASE put the 
header in or it will probably be ignored) to the newsgroup  Do not reply or post it back to the 
original group.  A suggested subject is one of the following:

Subject: EMP <Subject from the Spam message>
Subject: ECP <Subject from the Spam message>
Subject: UCE <Subject from the Spam message>
Subject: SEX <Subject from the Spam message>

Please include the original Subject: from the original Spam so that it 
can easily be spotted.  Thank you.

Take a careful look at the header, if there are "curious characters" 
(characters that look like garbage) in the X-Mailer: line, or any 
other line in the header, then delete those characters otherwise the 
message may end up truncated.  The offending line consists of the 
EIGHT characters D0 CF 11 E0 A1 B1 1A E1 (in hex).

If the post is particularly amusing (Spammer threat or a postmaster 
threat), put C&C in the subject.  Seymour tells us it means Coffee and 
cats. This originated from a post claiming that a particular 
outrageous article had caused spewing of coffee into the keyboard and 
jumping while holding a cat, resulting in scratched thighs.

An Excessive Multiple Post (EMP) may exceed the spam threshold and may 
be canceled.  An Excessive Cross Post (ECP) may not be canceled 
because it hasn't reached the threshold. A UCE is for Unsolicited 
Commercial Email, SEX is for off-topic sex-ad postings.

Make Money Fast message is immediately cancelable and are usually 
canceled already by others, so please do not report MMF posts.  See 
MMF section below.

Tracing a fake post is probably easier than a fake e-mail because of 
some posting peculiarities.  You just have to save and look at a few 
"normal" posts to try to spot peculiarities.  Most people are not 
energetic to go to the lengths of the below, but you never know.

Dan reminds us that first you should gather the same post from 
*several* different sites (get your friends to mail the posts to you) 
and look at the "Path" line.  Somewhere it should "branch".  If there 
is a portion that is common to all posts, then the "actual" posting 
computer is (most likely) in that portion of the path.  That should be 
the starting postmaster to contact.  Be sure to do this expeditiously 
because the log files that help to trace these posts may be deleted 

If you *really* want to see some fake posts, look in alt.test or in 
the alt.binaries.warez.* groups.

A fake post:

From: User)
Subject: Femdom In Search of Naughty Boys
Message-ID: <>
Sender: User)
Organization: Internet Direct, Inc.
X-Newsreader: Trumpet for Windows[Version 1.0 Rev B final beta #1]
Date: Mon, 6 Nov 1995 01:59:38 GMT
Lines: 13

This poor lady (Name deleted by suggestion) was abused by someone for 
a couple of days in an epic spam.  Many messages were gathered.  The 
message ID was different for several messages.  But several anomalies 
showed an inept poster.

The headers were screwed up, and when looking at a selection of 
messages from several sites, the central site was, 
where gets / injects news at.  This lead to the conclusion 
that either or should be contacted to see 
who the original spammer was. I never heard the results of this, but 
the spamming eventually stopped.

You can try looking at sites & see if they have that message by :
telnet 119
Connected to
200 InterNetNews server INN 1.4 22-Dec-93 
head <>

Message was not found at that site, so it did not go thru that 
computer, or the article has already expired or been deleted off of 
that news reader.

If you wish to track a particular phrase, user-id (whatever) take a 
look at the URL for getting all the posts pertaining to "X" :

WWW IP Lookup URL's
============================= - My personal favorite.  All the tools on one 
page. - Reverse lookup - Traceroute Lists by States and 
Backbone Maps List - Traceroute and ping
Note : Studio42 lists its blocked users as: "All UU.Net dial-ups, thus 
most MSN subscribers and a percentage of Earthlink users." - Traceroute - NSLookup - Dig
Index to Traceroute pages:
ing/Software/Networking/Utilities/Traceroute/ - Traceroute Server 
  Or - European countries WhoIs - Asian Pacific WhoIs - Korean Whois - North / South America WhoIs - Whois
IP to Lat - Lon (For those times when only a Tactical Nuke will do ;-
)) :
Yet Another IP to name:
What do those domain names mean : - Country 
Codes for the last characters in a domain name - Badly Formed DNS article

Converting that IP to a name
When all you have is a number the looks like "", and no 
computer name, then you have to figure out what the name of that 
computer is.  Most likely if you complain to " 
postmaster@[] " it will go directly to the spammer 
themselves (if it goes anywhere at all).

If nothing else works, you might wish to go ahead and send a complaint 
to postmaster@  Ina tells us that the reason for this 
is "that we've seen that forged DNS-records will mislead the 
complainer.  I've seen this done from time to time, and though not 
common yet, it probably will become so."

Marty reminds us that there are some "special" IP's that are allocated 
as private networks.  These fall within the confines of to but should be ignored.  The addresses are :

Class  Start Address  End Address
  D - Multicast
  E - Multicast
And the "special" addresses: (Loopback address)

See :

First off try using NSLookup (there is software for PC's, I use , put the address in the section "address 
digger", click on Whois IP block and Traceroute and click on "do 
stuff" or look at the URL's at the bottom of this FAQ).  If the 
NSLookup does not give you a name then try a Traceroute.  Somewhere 
you will get a "name" and at that point I would complain to the 
postmaster@<that name>.  See below for complaint addresses.

What to do with "strange" looking Web links

To convert that decimal number to a "dotted quad octet" :

You can put this "strange" number in at any of the following : - Automatic url decoder built in for Windows 
And you get an answer like:

You can try the "strange" number at :

Kirk tells us wsftp and the traceroute that comes with wsftp will take 
those number and automatically translate them into the IP addresses.

Or under Widows 95 :
 start --> Programs --> Accessories --> Calculator
Choose view --> Scientific
Put in the "strange" number (3438189385) and click on HEX.  You get:

Then type in each of the two characters in HEX and click DEC after 
each number:
CC = 204
EE = 238
9B = 155
49 =  73

Viola ... Your IP is

For more general funny URLs, like 
, try

If you get a strange URL like:^T^B^T^E^|^B^E^T^B^T^E^T^T.ooooooooo 
Where the ^B = Control "B", ^T = Control "T", etc. you can look at the 
very end right before the first "/" to figure out what the site is, on 
this case it is, using port 80.  The rest of it 
is "decoded" by to give the "real" site name.
For MS Windows the program at will decode 
these with ease.

If the site is a IP address like "", you can do a DNS lookup 
to backtrack the site.  A DNS lookup or a host command (see example 
below) uses the info in a Domain Name Server database.  This is the 
same info that is used for packet routing.  The UNIX command is :

nslookup hostname dns_server
dig @dns_server hostname

And you get :

If you are having problems with this, Josh suggests you try :

$ nslookup
Default Server:

> set type=ptr

Non-authoritative answer:    name =

Authoritative answers can be found from:
126.183.204.IN-ADDR.ARPA        nameserver =
126.183.204.IN-ADDR.ARPA        nameserver =      Internet address =       Internet address =

Looking up IP address ownership

InterNIC is your friend. The InterNIC Registration Services Host 
contains ONLY Internet Information (Networks, ASN's, Domains, and 
POC's).  Please use the whois server at for MILNET 
Information.  Try :

Bruce tells us that there are three places where you can lookup an IP 
address, being the current trinity of Regional Internet Registries.  
These RIRs are: 

Asia and Pacific Rim: APNIC - Asia Pacific Network Information Centre 

 Americas and parts of Africa: ARIN - American Registry for Internet 

 Europe and Surrounding Areas: RIPE NCC - RИseaux IP EuropИens, 
Network Coordination Centre

Under Unix, you can use: 
    whois -h 
    whois -h 
    whois -h 

Each of the above three RIRs may refer to one of the other RIRs.  
Please do not send complaints to any of the RIRs as they merely 
provide contact information, and are not related in any way to the 
possible spammers. 

Dan has said that the NIC technical contact is the address to contact 
if there is a technical problem with the name service records for that 
domain.  Sending spam notifications to the zone tech contact is an 
abuse of the NIC whois records.  Sending to the admin contact is 
marginally more justifiable, but should only be used after postmaster 
and abuse address has been tried.  Sending a complaint to all of the 
intermediate sites in a traceroute should *not* be done, these sites 
in all likelyhood cannot do anything about the problem (with the 
exception of possibly the next to last site).

For domains that have invalid contact information you should contact 
the appropriate RIR (see above)

To see who the upstream provider is, try :


You might get :
traceroute to IP30.ABQ-DIALIN.HOLLYBERRY.COM (, 30 hops 
max, 38 byte packets
 1 (  190 ms  210 ms  120 ms
 2 (  100 ms  100 
ms  60 ms
 3 (  180 ms  130 ms  70 ms
 4 (  150 ms  140 ms  
150 ms
 5 (  180 ms  200 ms  
180 ms
 6 (  170 ms  290 ms  
240 ms
 7 (  300 ms  210 ms  
270 ms
 8 (  180 ms  240 ms  180 ms
 9 (  290 ms  220 ms  230 ms
10  * * *

The first column is the "hop" that traceroute is working on.  The next 
is the "computer" (and IP) of the computer at that hop.  The last 
three numbers are the milliseconds it took to get an answer from that 

You can get "codes" instead of the milliseconds.  An example of a 
"code" is the "* * *" for hop 10.

Here is a list of the codes:
? Unknown packet type.
H Host unreachable.
N Network unreachable.
P Protocol unreachable.
Q Source quench.
U Port unreachable.
* The Traceroute Packet timed out (did not return to you).

Chris clarifies that a '*' in actuality could be caused by a timeout 
OR something listening on the UDP ports traceroute uses to get it's 
port unreachables back from, to work, OR the router simply does not 
support ICMP/UDP unreachable ports and traceroute cannot determine 
it's status so it displays asterisks.

Humm..... Seems that after we get no 
response, so *that* is who I would complain to... or you can just send 
a message to ... If that doesn't work then 
complain to

JamBreaker sez : Be sure to let the traceroute go until the traceroute 
stops after 30 hops or so.  A reply of "* * *" doesn't mean that 
you've got the right destination; it just means that either the 
gateways don't send ICMP "time exceeded" messages or that they send 
them with a ttl (time-to-live) too small to reach you.

Try  'dig' (or one of its derivatives), it is used to search DNS 
records :
(For the software : )

yourhost> dig -x

; <<>> dig 2.0 <<>> -x
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY , status: NOERROR, id: 6
;; flags: qr aa rd ra ; Ques: 1, Ans: 1, Auth: 3, Addit: 3
;;, type = ANY, class = IN

;; ANSWERS:      86400   PTR

;; AUTHORITY RECORDS:     86400   NS     86400   NS     86400   NS

;; ADDITIONAL RECORDS:     86400   A    86400   A    86400   A

;; Sent 1 pkts, answer found in time: 64 msec
;; FROM: (yourhostname) to SERVER: default -- (yourDNSip)
;; WHEN: Thu Nov 16 23:30:42 1995
;; MSG SIZE  sent: 43  rcvd: 216

Getting a World Wide Web page busted

Many spammers use throw away accounts, accounts that they know will be 
deleted as soon as the service gets a complaint.  Of course the 
spammers mentality is "if it is free it is for me to abuse".  If the 
spammer really annoyed you then you might wish to dig and get every 
account possible deleted.  What you need to do is actually go to the 
WWW page that they advertise, look at the page and usually the page 
will redirect you to another site (or possibly redirect 2 or 3 times).  
Send a complaint to these sites (with the original spam).  It is 
important to explain to the site you are complaining to how you got to 
their site so that they don't ignore you.

In Netscape and Explorer there is an option to "view source".  This 
will pop up a page with all of the http source from the page.  This 
page will have all of the "links" to the next site.

If you look at the http source and it is unreadable (and sez 
"Haywyre"), take a look at :

 A list of Usenet complaint addresses
O.K... So you have a common site that you can complain to.  Good.  If 
you cannot figure out where the message came from, you can post the 
FULL HEADERS (this is *very* important for tracing) to alt.spam,, or (see the section entitled Reporting Spam 
and tracing a posted message).  Usually you can get someone to help 
with the message.

If you complain (or asked to be removed) to the spammer directly, you 
may just be confirming a "real" live e-mail address, which may lead to 
even more junk e-mail.  I would suggest complaining to the owner of 
the site only.  You can send e-mail to  (where is the provider you are complaining to) and it will get 
forwarded to the "best" e-mail address.. See

There is a list of admins to contact (besides the list contained 

Greg reminds us that if you are complaining to a postmaster about a 
week-old post, don't bother.  It's not on their server, they can't 
verify it.  Make sure you use terms correctly.  A recent trend is to 
call any off-topic post "spam".  It's not.  I deal with spammers and 
off-topic or advertising posters differently.  Other providers do 
also.  Also, try to keep the clutter in your complaints down.  I don't 
need a copy of the referenced RFC or statute.  It doesn't help either 
of us if I can't find your complaint in between all the mumbo jumbo.

Send complaint with FULL HEADERS in e-mail to any or all of the below 

The following providers have now created an "abuse" address, so I have 
listed them to shorten the FAQ.  Just send an address to abuse@<the 
provider listed> for a complaint, i.e :, ABAC.COM - , Above.Net - , - ,,,,, AGIS.NET,, ALABANZA.COM,,,, Aloha.Net,,,, ANV.NET - , APEXMAIL.COM,,,,,,,, Atlantic.Net - ,,,,,,, Bellsouth,,,,,,,,,,, - ,, - , - , - ,,,, - , - ,,,, Clover.Net, CNX.NET,,, 
Combase.COM,,, - - ,, - , - ,,,,, CWI.NET - , - , - ,, - , - ,,, dN.NET - ,,,,,,,,, - ,, - - ,, - ,,,, - / ,,,, FLIPS.NET - / ,  - ,,,, - , - 
http://WWW.FREESERVERS.COM/policies/abuse.html ,, - , 
- , Fuse Internet Access - ,,, - ,, - ,,, - 
- $200 cleanup fee !!!,,, graphic-, - ,, GSTIS.NET, GXN.NET,, - , HK.Super.NET - , - , / - , /,,,,, - , IDT.Net - , IMPSAT.NET.AR, IMSIS.COM,, - , InfoAve.Net,,,, - ,, - , - ,, INVISIO.COM,,,,, - , - AUP ,,, - ,, LIGHTNING.NET - 
, LN.NET,,,,,,,,, - , - / ,,,,,,, - ,,,,,,,, - , - / ,,,,,, NETSCAPE.NET,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, - ,, - , , , -,, - ,, - ,,, - ,,,,, POWERSITE.NET,,,,, PSI Net - - ,,, - ,,,, - ,,,, - ,, - ,,,,,,, - ,,, - ,,,,,, - ,,,,,, - ,, - - , - , - , - ,,,, - , 
Telstra Big Pond Direct - , - ,, -, - ,,, - ,,, - (French) - (English), - ,,, ULINK.NET,,,,, USA.Net - ,, - , - ,,,,,, VPWEBHOSTING.NET, WCom.Net,,, - ,,,, - ,,,, - ,, - ,,, - 

For the following providers the correct e-mail address is:
1-800-242-0363 # (Some Extension) - - Digitcom 
Nationwide Services 
1-800-600-0343 # (Some Extension) - - Digitcom 
sells flat rate $19.95 per month services, 100 messages per day.  
Spammers love this as it is no muss no fuss flat rate.
1-800-607-6006 # (Some extension) - - Associated 
1-800-811-2141 Code # (some code number) - - - AUP
ABSnet - or - -
ACN US Tech -
Adobe software piracy -
AiNET - - -  - Allinfosys advertises an open 
SMTP port at [] - or - (place the offending 
URL or Email address in the subject) -
AOL - E-Mail abuse - UseNet (News) abuse - Internet security issues, member harassment or 
threats - AOL Web pages which do not comply with 
AOL's Terms of Service - IRC abuse - - AOL UCE policy - IP Lookup - whois -h <IP address> - APNIC 
Does not provide network services. APNIC is the Internet registry for 
the Asia and Pacific Rim regions -- we primarily delegate blocks of 
addresses to service providers.  We do not run a network (other than 
our internal network) nor do we have customers or non-staff accounts. - -
AT&T - -
AT&T WorldNet Services - - -
B-INTOUCH - / / - / - - - / - / - / - ??? (They deleted  No 
website, no AUP.  Obviously rogue. - - To check and see if a user is 
active, go to , 
put in the user and click on "Get It".  If that user is still active 
then Bigfoot will reply with password sent, otherwise you will get an 
error. - / / / - - - - - - - - Spam friendly 
see : - - - - - / 
(abuse mailbox was full ...)
Campus.MCI.Net - - / - - - - - - - Wrote a mail merge program that used to allow 
spamming, has since fixed the code but old versions are still out 
there ... Please do not complain to them ...
Com.BR - Policy - security violations write the 
list - - - Complaint form 
at - -
Compuserve - : Email "spam"/massmail 
complaints - : News "spam" complaints - / - Send to One and ONLY one 
address or it will bounce back to you unsent, and a bug in the 
software they have will *not* let you send that complaint to only one 
recipient after that first e-mail. - - - Cable and Wireless - Security -
CWIX.NET - - - - -
CyberTours.COM  - - -
DejaNews - - - / - - Dutch - abuse-<full hostname> Example: abuse- - - - (along with your real name) see -
Direct.CA - -
DRAGG.NET - postmaster@DRAGG.NET - - - - or - Acceptable use - (reports to are NOT 
forwarded to , they are deleted). - - - - - - - - -
Flashnet - - - - - - - - - - - (does not exist, it is faked) - See UUNET - - - - - /
GlobeComm, Inc. - GlobeComm is the parent company of iName -
GNN.Com - For help regarding a problem with a GNN member - - - -
Good.Net - - - - - - Spam cleanup charges !!! -
HKU.HK - Hong Kong University - kty@CC.HKU.HK
HLC.NET - - - - - Complaint must contain e-mail 
address, real name, address, and day time telephone number - (place the offending URL or Email 
address in the subject) - - (place the offending URL or Email address 
in the subject) - - -
bin/dasp/tos.asp - Also look for "X-Originating-IP: []" 
in the header to see where the e-mail originated from. -
ICQ - See - - - - - - abuse@ABAC.COM - - - - Mr. K H Lee - - - - - - - - - - - (place the offending URL or Email address 
in the subject) -
LAKER.NET or VOICE 1-954-359-3670 FAX 1-954-359-2741 - / for spamming 
incidents - http://LD.NET/bizop/bizop.html#nospam - - Spammer Canceled - Owned by - or - - - - -
Loop.Com or - - - - (place the offending URL or Email 
address in the subject) - - (place the offending URL or Email 
address in the subject) - - / 
(abuse mailbox was full ...)
MALIBU - - -
Maverick.NET - postmaster@MAVERICK.NET
MCI Net - - Security - -
MCSNet - - -
MicroSoft software piracy - - or - - (place the offending URL or Email address 
in the subject) - - - (place the offending URL or Email 
address in the subject)
n2<anything>.com - (Example :,, (place the offending URL or Email address 
in the subject) - - -
NAMESERVERS.COM - postmaster@NAMESERVERS.COM - - / or - Put "E-Mail" or "News" in Subject - / - - - $200 cleanup fee!!! - Apparently is not read (quota 
exceeded) use - - - (Norwegian 
only) - "Any use or exploiting of the 
Project Netfraternity (registered) for profit or commercial aims, by 
any person or organization, will be pursued by law."
NKN.NET - / - or - -
OnRamp - - - - - -
PIPEX- , International - , 
Unipalm PIPEX - - - - - (spam) / 
(internet abuse) - Killed users - - - - - - - - - / - - - - - - - - - / (abuse mailbox was full ...) - - "We will promptly terminate 
accounts of UCE originators and occasionally sue them.  So please 
forward us any spam you get from our dns." - - - - - - - - -
SUMMITPOINT.COM - - (Merged with - - - - - - - - -
Tele2 AB - - - - -
TheGrid - - - - - - - - - - - - - E-Mail problems - , News problems - , Security problems - - - -
UUNET - E-Mail Spams - Newsgroup Spams abuse- - If you don't want a reply -
UWO.CA - - - - - - - - - (place the offending URL or Email 
address in the subject) - - - - - - - - -

From : David Jackson ( (and this applies to *any* 
abuse) :
To report an instance of USENET abuse send mail to 
- please remember to include a complete copy of the USENET article, 
including all headers, to help us quickly quash the abuse.

Scott reminds us :
It might also be a good idea to remind people that sometimes the 
postmaster _is_ the spammer. Joe Spam might have his own domain (since 
they _used_ to be free) inside of which they are the postmaster. This 
is terrifyingly common with net.twits (kooks, etc.) but seems rare for 
spam. A quick note that if the spammer is the admin contact in whois, 
notifying the postmaster will surely generate laughs on their end.

In the letter to the postmaster, you might wish to mention Joel's very 
good FAQ about advertising on the Internet :

One company that was suckered in by a bulk e-mail company received 35 
responses to the addresses in the body of the message, and 100% of 
them were negative. Additionally the ISP that hosted them received 15 
complaints asking for them to terminate their service.  UUNet received 
50+ complaints about this UCE.

And where they *should* advertise :

Additional business links: - Economic FAQ 
about the Internet - 
Electronic Commerce - 
Additional Resources

If you don't get a proper response from the postmaster, remember, 
Whois - is your friend.  See the section labeled 
"Converting that IP to a name" for more information on Internic.

This *should* get you a person to talk to & their personal e-mail 
address.  If you don't get any response from that postmaster, then you 
should try the provider to that site.  This gets a little trickier, 
but a traceroute should show you the upstream provider, and from there 
you can try contacting the postmasters of *that* site.

Any non-profit organization (like a University) should be very happy 
to help get rid of a spammer if the non-profit organizations resources 
are being used to spam a for-profit business.  The IRS can take their 
non-profit status away for such things.  Talk to the legal council at 
the non-profit organization if you don't get a positive response from 
the postmaster.

Worst case, a site can be UDP (Usenet Death Penalty) out so that other 
sites stop accepting news or even e-mail from that site.  They are cut 
off from the net.  Decisions like this are discussed in the news group .

If the spammer site has problems trying to figure out where the spam 
came from, they can *always* get help from the denizens of, but have them take a look at their logs 
first and see if they see something like (Thanks to help from 

My news logs (for INND) are:
$ cd /usr/log/news
$ ls
OLD                expire.log         news.err           unwanted.log
errlog             news               news.notice
expire.list        news.crit          nntpsend.log

and here is my syslog.conf:
## news stuff
news.crit               /usr/log/news/news.crit
news.err                /usr/log/news/news.err
news.notice             /usr/log/news/news.notice               /usr/log/news/news
news.debug              /usr/log/news/news.debug

but, what they need to remember, is they HAVE TO LOOK QUICK!.  INND 
expire puts all these logs in OLD, and recycles them, and expires them 
at the 7th day (and gzips them), i.e., OLD/:
ls -l news.?.*
-r--r-----  1 news      news         181098 May 23 06:26 news.1.gz
-r--r-----  1 news      news         319343 May 17 06:29 news.7.gz

so... to grep an old log looking for
(the {nn} is how many days ago, 1 is yesterday, 2 is 2 days ago, etc)
cd {log/OLD}
gunzip -c news.1.gz | grep | more

Fraud on the Internet and The MMF (Make Money Fast) Posts
A partnership of the National Association of Attorneys General, the 
Federal Trade Commission and The National Consumers League :
Call 1-800-876-7060 or fill out an on-line scam sheet: - FTC ScamSpam - FTC Scam Page
The Better Business Bureau has a web site at:
Hoaxes and scams :,1283,39298,00.html - A scam if 
you download a program you may pay $250 in telephone charges.

Robert Heinlein has a saying "TANSTAAFL" (There Ain't No Such Thing As 
A Free Lunch).  If it looks too good, it probably is. - Article on "HOW TO CONVERT $99 
There is also a fraud promising you millions of dollars from a 
"government official" in a small country with a "secret" bank account, 
but all he needs to transfer the money to you is:
(a)Your CompanyМs Name and Address
(b)Your full Name(s), Telephone, and Fax numbers (Private and Company)
(c)Your Bank Name, Address, Account number, Telex and swift code (if 
If you send this information, they have all the information they need 
to drain your account of all money that is in there.  See : - How to contact the US Gov't 
about this scheme
Send scams to (Put No Monetary Loss in the 
header if you haven't lost any money)

In the United States :
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission web page (stock 
solicitations, stock manipulation by sending out spam after buying a 
stock to get others to buy the stock and increase the price) or Email: - Pump and Dump tips - SEC prosecutions
Net Securities scam: Report to
The Food and Drug Administration :
Medical Items:
US Federal Drug Administration - MedWatch - Medwatch@OC.FDA.GOV

Make Money Fast is a pyramid (or Ponzi) scheme where you are in a 
chain of people wherein you send money to a few people and try to 
recruit others to send money to you.  Basically if it even remotely 
smells like a MMF scheme it is illegal (even tho' many of the MMF 
schemes "claim" to have been looked at by a lawyer or checked by the 
United States Postal Authorities).

For a list of countries where Make Money Fast is illegal see :
Scams can be found at places like :

Please, only report MMFs in if they're spam 
and you've seen it in lots of groups and / or the postmaster/user are 
defiantly stupid.

MMFs should be reported to the user and their postmaster and the 
following :

Where to send complaints to in Australia:
Ministry of Fair Trading
P O Box 6355

In Canada I believe that the applicable Canadian description can be 
found at :
And from the Canadian Department of Justice server ( ):
COMPETITION - Definition of "scheme of pyramid selling" - Section 55.1
206. (1) Every one is guilty of an indictable offense and liable to 
imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years who . . .
Pyramid Schemes
55.1 (1) For the purposes of this section, "scheme of pyramid selling" 
means a multi-level marketing plan whereby ...

United Kingdoms:
Consumer Affairs and Competition Policy Directorate 2
Department of Trade and Industry, 1 Victoria Street, London, SW1H 0ET
        Tel: 0171 215 0344
Have a booklet called 'The Trading Schemes Guide' which is very useful
indeed and explains the UK legal details on these things,

In the United States, you should write the Federal Trade Commission 
Ms. Broder
( ).  For more info on pyramid schemes use
To find your nearest postal inspector in the USA, see URL
California MMF law :


   Trying to catch the suspect still logged on

If you think you know a machine close to the spammer, you can change 
your default DNS lookup server (and get *lots* more info ;-)) by :
$ nslookup
> server
Default Server:
> ls -d
[]                       SOA (10 
21600 3600604800 86400)                       NS                       NS                       MX    10                       SOA (10 
21600 3600604800 86400)

If you are quick enough, you can see if the spammer is still on by :


And you might get :

kuller ray timbers jweinman timbers john timbers rayzer

Assuming that the spammer is from you can expand the 
Spammers UserID (some sites have expn / vrfy turned off) by:

> telnet smtp
Trying ...
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.
220 Sendmail 4.1/SMI-4.1 ready at Sun, 22 Oct 95 15:13:39 
expn krazykev
250 Lipsitz Kevin <>

We connect to port 25 (smtp) and issues an expn command.  Looks like is being used as a maildrop for this user.  I'll 
would send my complaint to as well (not that it 
would do any good in Krazy Kevin's case...  but the reply to your e-
mail might be amusing).

To find out the Mail Exchange records, do a nslookup for the MX 
records only.  You can then look up the expansion of the postmaster or 
root to see who they really are.  For example :
% nslookup
> set type=mx
> preference = 20, mail exchanger = preference = 10, mail exchanger =

% telnet smtp
220 ESMTP Sendmail 8.7.1/8.6.9 ready at Thu, 11 Jan 
1996 12:54:26 -0500 (EST)
expn postmaster
250 <>
expn root
250 <>

Duncan tells us 80% of sites that have EXPN and VRFY disabled are 
"vulnerable" to the following technique. The risk factor is not 
exactly huge it can only be used to test whether an address will 
bounce at the tested box.
$ telnet localhost 25
Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 ESMTP Sendmail 8.8.8/8.7.3; 
Mon, 5 Jun 
2000 17:54:21 GMT
EHLO Hello admin@localhost [], pleased 
to meet 
250 HELP
250 <>... Sender ok
550 <>... User unknown
250 <>... Recipient ok
221 closing connection
Connection closed by foreign host.

(The names of the computers have been changed to protect spammer's 
accounts and my mailboxen. Naturally you would not normally probe your 
local machine this way.)

This obviosuly only works when you are talking to the machine that 
actually delviers the email, so pull out your copy of nslookup find 
the MX records, and be sure to use the best MX. I sometimes use this 
method to test for abuse, which is probably an alias--this method can 
not distinigish between aliases and accounts.

You can use the 'host' command. It's really simple:
% host -t any

This will give you anything your name server can find out.

% host -t ns

This tells you the name servers. Not all systems have host, but it's a 
small program which should be easy to compile (like whois).

The command "last" will tell where the spammer logged on from last, 
but it has to be done by a user from that site. For example :

last imrket4u

Would produce :

imrket4u     ttypf Fri Sep 15 00:27 
- 00:34 (00:06)
imrket4u     ttyq8 Fri Sep 15 00:19 
- 00:20 (00:01)
imrket4u     ttyqc    abq-ts1              Thu Sep 14 20:42 - 22:21  
imrket4u     ttyqc         Thu Sep 14 18:39 - 18:41  
imrket4u     ttypb    abq-ts1              Thu Sep 14 17:55 - 17:57  

Filtering E-Mail BlackMail, procmail or News with Gnus

Filtering with BlackMail.  This is free software that works with 
Mailers Smail, Sendmail, Qmail or Fetchmail under the OSes: Aix, 
various BSD, Irix, Linux, NeXTStep 3.x, Solaris, SunOs, SVR4: - By Ken Hollis (Not me ...)

Get the procmail FAQ :

Procmail ruleset :

Or read about it when it is posted to :
Newsgroups: comp.mail.misc , comp.mail.elm , comp.mail.pine , 
comp.answers , news.answers
Subject: Filtering Mail FAQ

Bob tells me that Eudora Pro has a good filtering capability.  You can 
filer based on who you send e-mail to, known spammers, etc.  Enough 
filters and you may see hardly any Spam.  Claris E-Mailer, likewise, 
has a filter option.

Brian has a Gnus scorefile from the Internet blacklist :

Or his example global scorefile :

Many news readers have a "kill" file that will filter out the posts 
from either a certain user-id, or posts with certain titles.  Each 
news reader is unique.  You might wish to read the help file on the 
subject of kill files.

Rejecting E-Mail from domains that continue to Spam
Spamfilters can be found at:

List of spammers:

Or look at a page on how to block e-mail :

Also how to stop your mail server from being a Spam Relay :

Sendmail patch that permits filtering by envelope sender and recipient 
as well as by Received: lines, header recipient (To: friends@public..) 
and enables refusing of relaying _before_ transmission of the message:

Ask your admin to add the following to their  This will 
reject all mail that continues to come in from domains that only send 
out spam.  This is a group effort from many admins :
Modify your in the following way.
1. Setup a hash table with the domains you wish to block:
# Bad domains (spam kings)

2. Add the following rules to S98 (be sure that there are three lines 
(i.e. the lines are not split up) and be sure to put a TAB character 
between the $* and the $#error, not a space) :
### Spam blockage
R$* < @$*$=K . > $*	$#error $@ 5.1.3 $: "Your domain has been 
blocked due to spam problems.  Contact your administrator."
R$* < @$*$=K > $*	$#error $@ 5.1.3 $: "Your domain has been blocked 
due to spam problems.  Contact your administrator."

3. Make your hash table.  Here is a very small example :

Mail that comes in from any of these domains will be returned to 
sender with the error.  If the sender is bogus, it will bother the 
postmaster at the bad domain in an appropriate manner.

Keep in mind that *ALL* email from these domains will be blocked.  
This is really only a good solution for domains that are setup by 
spammers for spamming.  Blocking something like, although it 
may seem initially attractive, would cause problems for legitimate 
users of email in that domain.  Compile your list after careful 
verification that these domains fit the above description.

   Origins of Spam
The history of calling inappropriate postings in great numbers "Spam" 
is from a Monty Python skit (yes, it is very silly... see ) where a couple go 
into a restaurant, and the wife tries to get something other than 
Spam.  In the background are a bunch of Vikings that sing the praises 
of Spam.  Pretty soon the only thing you can hear in the skit is the 
word "Spam".  That same idea would happen to the Internet if large 
scale inappropriate postings were allowed.  You couldn't pick the real 
postings out from the Spam.  See:

Geek cartoons, some anti-spam cartoons mixed in:

To join a discussion list for Spams, send a message to
In the body of the message type :
   subscribe spamad your_name your_affiliation

Or a real mailing list for the discussion on spamming and  about what 
is and/or isn't possible in dealing with this problem.  If you would 
like to join the mailing list send mail to with the 
following message in the body :
   subscribe spam-list [preferred address]

Black listed Internet Advertisers :  (Europe)

Oldmilk tells us the alt.spam Commandments :
1) Thou shalt not post binaries to a non binary group.
2) Thou shalt not post "sPaM this l00zer" to alt.spam
3) Thou shalt not post to inform us for the thousandth time that this 
group was started to discuss the fine spiced ham product from Hormel.
4) Thou shalt not spam this newsgroup.
5) Thou shalt not post on a topic that has nothing to do with spam 
6) Thou shalt not harass any regular poster here, lest your ass be 
spanked to rosy hue.
7) Thou shalt not attempt to make any straw man arguments that spam is 
8) Thou shalt read the newsgroup before posting.

First off, the only CORRECT way to "SPAM" the net : - SPAM Fan Club - Spam, SPAM and the Internet ...  
Use "Spam" when referring to Internet Unsolicited E-Mail, ONLY use 
"SPAM" (all CAPS) when referring to the Hormel Product.
Show SPAM Gifts
Or for the free SPAM recipe Book ($1.00 postage and handling) :
SPAM recipe Book, P.O. Box 5000, Austin, MN 55912
Or for SPAM merchandise and apparel call 1-800-LUV-SPAM

SPAM Sites (the food) / The Church of Spam : - SPAM Haiku - SPAM Recipes

There is also a letter circulating about "dying boy wants postcards" 
(Craig Shergold) which is no longer true.  Same as with the Blue Star 
LSD addicting children hoax.  See Urban Folklore FAQ at :

A complete Urban Legends listings (It is big) :

Some other hoax pages: - Symantec Hoax Page - 
Hoax - Chain Letters - All about the Bill 
Gates Hoax chain letter that was followed by a hoax letter from The 
Gap, Bath & Body Works, Old Navy, Abercrombie & Fitch and probably 
just about any company you can imagine. - Virus Myths

And why Disney is *not* giving away 13,000 free trips, why Bill Gates 
is not collecting e-mail addresses (and many other hoaxes):

My usual response goes something like:
<Quote part of the hoax)
> Hi! My name is Janelle McCan, Founder of the Gap. I am offering
> thirty five dollar gift certificates to every seven people you send
> this to.

If you ever get an e-mail that tells you to forward it to other 
people, it is *almost certainly* a hoax.  Specifically if it tell you 
about a "new virus" or free money.  Before you send it along *please* 
look it up by going to and typing words from the 
e-mail into the search line, like (in this example) and the word hoax:
Gap gift certificates e-mail hoax

Sorry.  This is a hoax.  See:

Plus, if the Gap could trace your e-mails, don't you think the 
Government could do the same and wouldn't that make you worry *just* a 
bit?  Not that they aren't trying, see:,10738,2606926,00.html

But anyway, there are no free Gap certificates, no free $1,000 bills 
from Microsoft or any free trips to Disney.  Sorry.

PLEASE read about the Gullibility Virus. This is a very funny 
editorial to be passed along to your friends who send you all these 
kinds of hoaxes :
<end of hoax message>

There has been some discussion that such things should be canceled 
because they exceed the BI 20 index.  They are untrue and they waste 

A conversation with a spammer.  I was amused.  First time I had ever 
spoken with one.  I also forgot to mention (in our very short 
conversation) that his World Wide Web service would be deleted (which 
it was) :
Me (7:04 PM):     I got your spam.  By Monday morning all your 
accounts should be canceled.  That would be your AT&T account, your 
Hotmail account and this AOL account.  You are welcome.  Bye.
GS711 (7:05 PM):     <snip - Expletive Deleted>
Me (7:05 PM):     Thank you very much.  You should learn how to 
advertise correctly on the Internet.
Me (7:06 PM):     If you do it correctly than you won't have to run 
and hide.
GS711 (7:06 PM):     thanks for letting me know who you are
Me (7:06 PM):     Who am I? :-) ...
Me (7:06 PM):     BTW, all your Spams will be reported by many other 
people other than myself ...
(He signed off)

And another exchange with a spammer:

A Spammers Soliloquy.  I had to keep this one because it was actually 
very creative (unexpected from a spammer) :

And a final note to spammers (I try not to make too many "personal" 
statements in this FAQ ...).  It is best not to be such a pain that 
the Geeks find an intense interest in you.  They are almost certainly 
smarter than you, at the very least they are smarter in the ways that 
the Internet works.  The worst thing for you, however, is that they 
usually have no life and can easily make you "their life".

How *did* I get this unsolicited e-mail anyway?
Unfortunately just posting a message to a news group can get 
unsolicited e-mail.  Some spammers "harvest" e-mail addresses by 
stripping e-mail return addresses out of messages people post.  Try 
posting to alt.test a few times.  You will get not only a few 
autoresponder messages (that is how it is *supposed* to work) but also 
a few unsolicited pieces of e-mail.  The solution to this is to "mung" 
your address when you post by adding in extra characters (like "Spam") 
in your return address.  You then put in your signature something like 
"Remove the word Spam from my e-mail to contact me".  See: - How spammers harvest 
addresses - Address Munging

Another way to get e-mail is to have a World Wide Web page.  Some 
spammers just start a web spider (a piece of software that just 
traverses World Wide Web pages and collects information) going and 
collect e-mail that way.  To prevent your e-mail from being harvested, 
you can "mung" your web e-mail.  

Yet another way for spammers to verify your address is real is to have 
multiple unique pages to their site so that when you click on the URL 
they provide, they know that you (and only you) got that URL.  See: 

Pierre suggests that when putting a mailto URL in a web page, precede 
and follow it with "%20". When someone clicks on it, it will merely 
put spaces, which will be ignored, around the address, but when a 
spammer harvests the address, it will have a %20 in it, which will 
render it undeliverable.

For additional munging see:

A suggestion of some nasty little HTML items to have in your WWW page 
(invisible, of course) are :

<A HREF="mailto:root@[]"></a>
 or if your server allows "server-side includes" (and .shtml) :
<a href="mailto:abuse@<!--#echo var="REMOTE_ADDR"--> ">anti 

Also you might include a mail to news gateway like the following so 
that the Spam is posted to Usenet :

See for mail to news 

<A HREF=""></a>
<A HREF=""></a>
<A HREF=""></a>

Note : You should note on your World Wide Web page that these links 
should *not* be followed by Lynx users, as they will see them no 
matter how you choose not to display them on a graphical interface.  
The last few in the below list are particularly not nice as they 
execute commands on a UNIX host.  Substitute root@[] with any 
of the following :
postmaster abuse root admin postmaster@localhost abuse@localhost 
root@localhost admin@localhost postmaster@loopback abuse@loopback 
root@loopback admin@loopback
`cat /dev/zero > /tmp/...`@localhost
;cat /dev/zero > /tmp/...;@localhost
`umount /tmp`@localhost
;umount /tmp;@localhost

   How To Respond to Spam

Howard reminds us :
Note to all:  NEVER followup to a spam.  NEVER.  Express your 
indignation in mail to the poster and/or the, but NEVER in the newsgroups!

Karen asks:
But what about the newbies who look at a group, see lots of spam and 
ads, see NO posts decrying them, and conclude that ads are therefore 

Ran replies :
When it gets bad,  you'll usually see some "What can we do about 
this?" threads.  That's a good place to attach a reply that tells 
people why it's bad, and what they can, in fact, do.

Austin Suggests:
At the risk of attracting flames, let me suggest an exception to 
Howard's law.  A followup is allowed if the following 3 conditions 
   1) The offending article is clearly a SCAM (for instance, the 
*Canada* calls with the Seychelles Islands phone # scam)
   2) No one else has followed-up with a posting identifying it as a 
scam (in other words, no 'Me too' warnings)
   3) It is unlikely to be canceled soon, either because it seems to 
be below the thresholds, or it is in a local hierarchy that doesn't 
get cancels, or Chris Lewis is on vacation in the Seychelles Islands.  
If all three conditions are met, a followup that X's out the contact 
information , severely trims the contents and identifies the post as a 
scam is exempt from Howard's law.
Bill's and Wolfgang's addition :
   4) Follow-ups should be cross posted to 
_and_ the groups of the spam, but Followup-To: *MUST* be set to *ONLY*
post a follow-up and *SET* Followup-To:
In the first case change
 Subject: Important FREE $$$
 Subject: Spam (was Re: Important FREE $$$)
and include the original Newsgroups and Message-ID line, so the 
professional despammers will immediately find what you're talking 
about.  Do not post unless you're absolutely sure that you can do all 
that properly. Also 1) - 3) do apply.

If you see the same article with different Message-IDs in several 
groups, collect the _complete_ headers of each article and check if it's already been reported. If not, start 
a thread with Subject: Spam (was Re: <original Subject>) in or . Include all 
of the headers and as much of the body of one article as you see fit.

Shalon adds:
One note here: in the soc.subculture.bondage-bdsm group, we have 3 or
4 netcops who *do* follow up each spam message with header, whois,
traceroute, and contact address info so that those in the group who do
not have the technical skills to determine this can complain. It's an
unmoderated sex-related newsgroup which has almost no spam -- so it
would appear that the technique works extremely well.

 Firewalls and protecting your computer

If your computer is constantly connected to the Internet (DSL, cable 
modem, thru a corporate connection) you should have *some* kind of 
software or hardware that monitors to keep ackers out.

A description of of what a firewall looks for / can tell you is at:

Review and explanation of firewalls:

An example of personal firewall software is: - Free for personal use - Surfgaurd Free for personal use (protects 
against malicious web pages)

The problem with some of these types of software is that they are 
"technical" when they report an "attack" and the "attack" may or may 
not be worth noting.  Network Ice (Black Ice) seems to work fairly 
well IMHO, but again you will need to examine each "attack" and see 
what it really is before complaining to a provider.

Bottom line, if you are constantly connected to the Internet (or even 
if you dial up for long periods of time) you should either have a 
firewall in your network, or run software like the above.

  Revenge - What to do & not to do

No matter how much we hate Spam and how much we dislike what the 
spammers to our quiet little corner of the Universe known as the 
Internet, Spam is not illegal (yet).  If you try anything against the 
spammers, please * do not * put yourself in risk of breaking the law.  
It only makes them happy if you get in trouble because you were trying 
to get back at them.

The reason why spammers use "throwaway" accounts is because they know 
the e-mail account will be deleted.  They usually provide either 
another e-mail address or a name / phone number or postal address so 
that prospective "customers" can be contacted.  Be sure to complain to 
the postmaster of all e-mail names provided to make sure that this 
route is inhibited.

There are sites dedicated to revenge like

You can ask the Attorney General of a state whether or not that 
business is licensed in that state, and who runs the business.  I 
looked up a business out of Nevada and found : - National Association of Attorney Generals - We welcome any comments or concerns from 
you regarding Attorney General matters. If you would like a response 
from this office, please provide your name, address and telephone 
number, with your electronic inquiry and this office will respond to 
you by mail.
Write to :

Look the business name / owner up on the WWW for Las Vegas NV :
Which gave me the following info for the spammer "ROAD TO WEALTH INC":

And see if they are paying the correct taxes:
Nevada Department of Taxation
555 E. Washington Ave.  
Suite 1300  
Las Vegas, NV 89101  
PH: (702)486-2300  
FAX: (702)486-2373

City of Las Vegas
Department of Business Services
P.O. Box 1900
400 Stewart Avenue
Las Vegas, NV 89125

 Telephoning someone

Calling someone once is fine.  If enough people are irritated at the 
spammer and they all call the 1-800 number the spammer provides, the 
spammer will get the idea (sooner or later) that it is costing them 
more in irate people (and most especially loss of business) and it is 
not worth it to spam.

Do not dial any phone numbers more than once from your home.  Phone 
harassment is * illegal * and you * can * be prosecuted in court for 
this. Even tho' the caller id blocking code (may be *67 or *71 or some 
other code) prevents your number from being displayed on their 
telephone at home if they have caller ID, *57 will give the phone 
company the number, *69 will dial back the phone number via automatic 
call back.  If it is a 1-800 number there are two problems.  First 
they can *always* get your phone number, and secondly it may *not* be 
a toll free number.  You may be charged for calling a 1-800 number.

Likewise, do not call collect using 1-800-COLLECT or 1-800-CALL-ATT 
from home, once again this can be traced.

Austin comments : I would say that calling a listed non-800 number 
*once* collect to voice a complaint is not harassment, but justified.  
They sent you a postage due message, didn't they?  If they don't want 
to accept collect calls, they should say so - and if they do, you 
should be a responsible person and not do it again.

AT&T Information for 1-800 numbers is 1-800-555-1212, but that only 
helps if you know the company name you are trying to call.  Also, you 
can try searching for a 1-800 number (you do not have to know the 
company name) at :

Other telephone search mechanisms: - Where that phone number is 

Snail Mailing someone

Likewise, one well thought out letter sent to the spammer might help 
convince the spammer not to do this again.  Especially if the spammer 
was part of a corporation that didn't realize the detrimental effects 
of spamming the Internet.

If you decide to deluge the spammers postal address by filling out one 
or two "bingo" (popcorn) postage paid cards in the technical magazines 
(by circling a few dozen "product info" requests per card & putting on 
printed out self sticking labels with the spammers address), or by 
putting preprinted labels on postage paid cards that come in the mail 
in the little plastic packages, don't organize a public campaign (that 
they can point to) against the spammer in the newsgroup.

Scott also reminds us :
Since this is the "Spam FAQ", I'd like to point this out: You're 
basically Spamming the company offering information in a magazine.  It 
costs companies money, not the one you're spamming. They get a free 
pile of junk which is easy to throw out. In other words, this may be 
harming third parties more than the intended target.  I'm not trying 
to be Mr. Nice Guy, just trying to point out an important 

Organizing a campaign against the spammer could lead to the spammer 
trying to get a cease & desist police order against the organizers.  
Likewise, FAXes that are inverse pages (black background on white 
letters) to a spammer could probably give you problems.

1-900, 1-800, 888, 877 and 1-### may be expensive long distance phone 
===== - 1-900 explained - Mysterious 
Phone charges

Be very careful when dialing a 1-800 or any "toll free" number you are 
not familiar with.  It may end up being a very expensive mistake.  
Remember to dial these numbers from a phone booth so that your home 
phone will never be charged.  Another reason to call from a pay phone 
is so that the spammer cannot get your home phone number.  Even if you 
are "Unlisted" when you call a toll free number the spammer gets your 
phone number.

All 1-800, 888 or 877 numbers are *not* free.  You may be charged for 
the phone call.  You can tell if the number charges by calling from a 
phone booth.  If you cannot get through then it charges.  See below.

Likewise, numbers that may "look" like they are United States long 
distance phone numbers may in fact be out of country and may cost you 
$25 or more for a couple of minutes call.  These calls are not 
refundable.  A scam artist trying to get money from the phone calls 
(he gets a skim off the top) was dialing random beepers with an out of 
country number.

A phone scam can be read at

Some area codes to look for (some may not be active for another year 
or two):
(Also see )

242 Bahamas
246 Barbados
264 Anguilla
268 Antigua
284 British Virgin Islands
340 U.S. Virgin Islands
345 Cayman Islands
441 Bermuda
473 Grenada
649 Turks and Caicos
664 Monserrat
670 CNMI (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands?)
671 Guam
758 St. Lucia
767 Dominica
784 St. Vincent and Grenadines
787 Puerto Rico
868 Trinidad and Tobago
869 St. Kitts and Nevis
876 Jamaica

If the ad says "Procall", it is a large service bureau for 1-900 
numbers in Arizona.  When you call a pay-per-call number, there should 
be a recorded intro that will give a customer service number.  That 
*should* connect with a live person.

I would like to thank Eileen at the FTC for kindly answering my 
questions about 1-900 & 1-800 phone numbers.

Paraphrasing what she e-mailed me :
When a 1-900 number is advertised, the price must also be disclosed 
(this may be found at 16 CFR Part 308).

When calling a 1-800 number that charges, there must be an existing 
subscription agreement between the buyer and the seller Federal Trade Commission Home Page Telemarketing Sales Rule - 
Telemarketing information / scams Reporting fraud

(from the "Online Scams page)

Junk Mail - The Law
=================== - Collection of legal spam 
items - 'Lectric Law Library

Kevyn tells us that : In many countries, forgers of headers can be 
prosecuted.  This is the equivalent of forging a postmark and 
delivering it yourself.  When someone sends out spam with forged 
headers, he or she clearly:
a) knows that what they are doing is wrong, and that they can be 
punished for it
b) is clearly attempting to evade detection and punishment.

For Norwegians, these pages may be interesting:
(Datatilsynet is a government controlled organisation, made to
protect people's right to privacy.  This page explains that if someone
wants to advertise by email or SMS messages, they need prior consent
from the victims)

You should also read Title 47 of the United States Code, Section 227. 
There is a FAQ at for the text of the law (gopher or 
ftp or ), and you can 
use DejaNews to read the USC 47 thread on to 
make up your own mind (it invariably comes up) or you can look at :

In Washington (State) (for example) fax laws (RCW 80.36.540 - 
Telefacsimile messages) define "telefacsimile message" in such a way 
that could be interpreted to include E-mail.  It was not originally 
written to cover E-Mail, but that is for the courts to decide :-).  
California regulates it thru Section 17538(d) of the Business and 
Professions Code.

A spammer has actually been prosecuted.  See:

In California (Quoted from ): Spamming to or 
from California e-mail service providers against their policy is now a 
civil offense under California Business and Professions Code Section 
17538.45. If you run a California-based e-mail service provider, you 
need to notify your customers of the law and your anti-spam policy in 
order to be eligible to collect damages of $50 per message.
Jeff tells us the California Code referring to spam (CA Bus. Prof. 
Code Sections 17538.4 and 17538.45) may be found through entering 
"17538" into:  (A pretty authoritative source)
That search pointed to:
Also see: - Sue a California spammer

The Virginia law :

The Washington State Law :

The Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act :

Additional Resources - Lots Of Links and a *really* good book

The latest & greatest version of the Spam FAQ is found at:
Or *nicely* HTML'ed at:
Or the archive at:

This is addition to the most excellent Net Abuse FAQ (posted to, etc...), 
brought to you by J.D. Falk <> : - FAQ - Spam Books

A most excellent book for novices and System Admin's alike, much more 
in depth than this FAQ.  A full 191 pages of how to fight Spam.  
Hopefully if they sell enough then this book will stay updated :
Stopping Spam - Alan Schwartz and Simson Garfinkel ISBN : 1-56592-388-
X - $19.95
O'Reilly & Associates - 90 Sherman St., Cambridge MA 02140 707-829-
  Or :

Spam cancellation notice (spam guidelines) : for info on NoCeM

Net abuse jargon:

Software to track the headers / eliminate Spam for you : - Mac software - Sam Spade WWW Spam tools - Excellent! - Classic version - INND PERL spam filter 
written by Jeff Garzik (Version 3) - Spam Block for IRIX (SGI) 
based on KAI's spamshield 1.40 - Windows Spam Hater - Spam Cop - Does the header 
analysis for you. - NeoTrace - helps to find any 
IP number, and possibly the name, address, telephone number and Email 
contacts of the provider. - 30+ spam tools ... - Works with windows e-mail programs 
that uses pop mail - A project to clean your e-mail from 
spammers list - You decide if it is good or bad ... - automated spam tracing and reporting 

To FTP spamhl.exe Send the following E-Mail:
BODY: open
      cd /pub/net-services
      get spamhl.exe

Your Daily Spam News:
Spam@MAIL-ME.COM - Web:
Subscribe to Spam-News :
or - - Top Spam Sites

Spammers and how to stop them : - Improve your spam-fighting skills - Anti-spam 
support site - spam havens listing - TINLC - There Is No Lumber Cartel
ing/Electronic_Mail/Junk_Email/ - spam news - Spam killer central - FAQ and gives how to view 
headers (about half way down) - Glossary of terms - Spam Anti! - getit4u.txt 
has a Spam section - CyberPromo Saga - Maryland Anti-
Harassment bill - Stalked by The 
Woodside Literary Agency 
Consummate FAQ's page - 
Consummate Spam Links Page - Internet Security
l - Internet Security - ISP sues spammer Regulation of 
Computing and Information Technology - AOL wins 
against Spammers - Complaint 
Addresses - Complaint - Internet Security - A spammer tries to sue the 
Cabal (TINC) - Trying to legislate against - How to Get Rid of 
Junk Mail, and Telemarketers - Improve your spam-fighting 
skills - Small Office / Home Office 
Newsletters Anti-Spam Articles for business - Internet Security - CyberCrime Corp Hi-Tech Crime 
Prevention and Investigation - A script to 
generate e-mail addresses - A good article on 
why the Internet should be self governing WRT Spam - "Help stop Scam Spammers!" - A fight to bill Spammers
s278700/r?l&igv& - Spam link list - spam free e-mail - Asks first-time unsolicited 
senders of email to prove they're human and not a spambot. - Anti-Spam mailing 
list - Maintainer of the Spam-L FAQ - Stalking the spammer 
Enemy - Infosec / computer security page - Where spammers get 
their software - A computer contemplates 
spam (see ) - More Reading 
Headers - "I am sick of Spam 
and I want it to stop" - Sunworld 
Anti-Spam - A Usenet with no Spam - 
Special Spam Fighting Edition

E-Mail headers and tracing tools FAQs and links: - Mac WhatRoute - Yet another newbie 
guide - Also yet another 
newbie guide - Macintosh Spam fighting - Forgery FAQ - How spammers get your E-Mail 
address - Spam Software - A collection of email-Spams. - General E-Mail info - Windows Internet 
Utilities - Win 95 Net Utils - netcop /

Spam Info in other languages: - Netherlands - 
Italian - Russian - Japan - Japan - German 
Anti-Spam links ... - Spam Anti! French - Russian - German Anti-Spam Mailing List - French (Canadian) - Russian spam & headers page - 
Norway - German Anti-
Spam and costs - 
German False E-Mail FAQ - German net 
abuse FAQ - Dutch anti spam site

Translate from/to English French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian
q%2ehtml&lp=en_de - English to Deutsch
q%2ehtml&lp=en_fr - English to French
Or paste the text into:

Or why Netabuse is bad : - The cost 
of spam - Good commentary on 
why SPAM costs

Equal time, The spammer's viewpoint (Why Spam is good): - Spammers Speak - Spammers Speak - Gerald Kohler ( ) argues for spam, with some good rebuttals.  
Click on "Thread" then click on message 8 then click on next in thread 
to follow the conversation.

What the alt.binaries.slack Organization has done to fight Spam :

Proud to be a NetScum (Many anti-Spammers have been added by the 
spammers) : - NetScum Site Recreated

Disclaimer : I am not a lawyer, 80% of the Internet is bull, free 
advice is worth every penny you paid for it :-).  Brought to you via 
News since November 1995.

Do not meddle in the affairs of wizards for they are subtle and 
quick to anger.
Ken Hollis - Gandalf The White - - O- TINLC
WWW Page -
Trace E-Mail forgery -
Trolls crossposts  -

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