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threads ()
  • >> threads (3) ( Solaris man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • threads (3) ( Linux man: Библиотечные вызовы )
  • threads (5) ( Solaris man: Форматы файлов )
  • Ключ threads обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
         threads, pthreads, libpthread, libthread - concepts  related
         to POSIX pthreads and Solaris threads and the libpthread and
         libthread libraries
         cc -mt [ flag... ] file...- lpthread [ -lposix4 library... ]
         #include <pthread.h>
         cc - mt [ flag... ] file...[ library... ]
         #include <sched.h>
         #include <thread.h>
         POSIX and Solaris threads each have their own implementation
         of  the  threads library. The  libpthread library is associ-
         ated with POSIX; the libthread library  is  associated  with
         Solaris. Both implementations are interoperable, their func-
         tionality similar, and can be used within the same  applica-
         tion. Only POSIX threads are guaranteed to be fully portable
         to other POSIX-compliant  environments.  POSIX  and  Solaris
         threads  require different source, include files and linking
         libraries. See SYNOPSIS.
         Most of the  functions  in  the  libpthread  and  libthread,
         libraries  have  a  counterpart  in  the other corresponding
         library. POSIX function names, with  the  exception  of  the
         semaphore names, have a "pthread" prefix. Function names for
         similar POSIX and Solaris have similar  endings.  Typically,
         similar POSIX and Solaris functions have the same number and
         use of arguments.
         POSIX pthreads and Solaris threads differ in  the  following
            o  POSIX threads are more portable.
            o  POSIX  threads  establish  characteristics   for  each
               thread according to configurable attribute objects.
            o  POSIX pthreads implement thread cancellation.
            o  POSIX pthreads enforce scheduling algorithms.
            o  POSIX pthreads allow for clean-up handlers for fork(2)
            o  Solaris threads can be suspended and continued.
            o  Solaris  threads  implement  an  optimized  mutex  and
               interprocess robust mutex locks.
            o  Solaris threads implement daemon  threads,  for  whose
               demise the process does not wait.
    Function Comparison
         The following table compares the POSIX pthreads and  Solaris
         threads functions. When a comparable interface is not avail-
         able either in POSIX pthreads  or Solaris threads, a  hyphen
         (-) appears in the column.
      Functions Related to Creation
               POSIX (libpthread)             Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_create()                 thr_create()
         pthread_attr_init()              -
         pthread_attr_setdetachstate()    -
         pthread_attr_getdetachstate()    -
         pthread_attr_setinheritsched()   -
         pthread_attr_getinheritsched()   -
         pthread_attr_setschedparam()     -
         pthread_attr_getschedparam()     -
         pthread_attr_setschedpolicy()    -
         pthread_attr_getschedpolicy()    -
         pthread_attr_setscope()          -
         pthread_attr_getscope()          -
         pthread_attr_setstackaddr()      -
         pthread_attr_getstackaddr()      -
         pthread_attr_setstacksize()      -
         pthread_attr_getstacksize()      -
         pthread_attr_getguardsize()      -
         pthread_attr_setguardsize()      -
         pthread_attr_destroy()           -
         -                                thr_min_stack()
      Functions Related to Exit
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_exit()                thr_exit()
         pthread_join()                thr_join()
         pthread_detach()              -
      Functions Related to Thread Specific Data
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_key_create()          thr_keycreate()
         pthread_setspecific()         thr_setspecific()
         pthread_getspecific()         thr_getspecific()
         pthread_key_delete()          -
      Functions Related to Signals
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_sigmask()             thr_sigsetmask()
         pthread_kill()                thr_kill()
      Functions Related to IDs
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_self()                thr_self()
         pthread_equal()               -
         -                             thr_main()
      Functions Related to Scheduling
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         -                             thr_yield()
         -                             thr_suspend()
         -                             thr_continue()
         pthread_setconcurrency()      thr_setconcurrency()
         pthread_getconcurrency()      thr_getconcurrency()
         pthread_setschedparam()       thr_setprio()
         pthread_getschedparam()       thr_getprio()
      Functions Related to Cancellation
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_cancel()              -
         pthread_setcancelstate()      -
         pthread_setcanceltype()       -
         pthread_testcancel()          -
         pthread_cleanup_pop()         -
         pthread_cleanup_push()        -
      Functions Related to Mutexes
                   POSIX (libpthread)             Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_mutex_init()                     mutex_init()
         pthread_mutexattr_init()                 -
         pthread_mutexattr_setpshared()           -
         pthread_mutexattr_getpshared()           -
         pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol()          -
         pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol()          -
         pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling()       -
         pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling()       -
         pthread_mutexattr_settype()              -
         pthread_mutexattr_gettype()              -
         pthread_mutexattr_destroy()              -
         pthread_mutex_setprioceiling()           -
         pthread_mutex_getprioceiling()           -
         pthread_mutex_lock()                     mutex_lock()
         pthread_mutex_trylock()                  mutex_trylock()
         pthread_mutex_unlock()                   mutex_unlock()
         pthread_mutex_destroy()                  mutex_destroy()
      Functions Related to Condition Variables
              POSIX (libpthread)             Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_cond_init()             cond_init()
         pthread_condattr_init()         -
         pthread_condattr_setpshared()   -
         pthread_condattr_getpshared()   -
         pthread_condattr_destroy()      -
         pthread_cond_wait()             cond_wait()
         pthread_cond_timedwait()        cond_timedwait()
         pthread_cond_signal()           cond_signal()
         pthread_cond_broadcast()        cond_broadcast()
         pthread_cond_destroy()          cond_destroy()
      Functions Related to Reader/Writer Locking
               POSIX (libpthread)              Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_rwlock_init()             rwlock_init()
         pthread_rwlock_rdlock()           rw_rdlock()
         pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock()        rw_tryrdlock()
         pthread_rwlock_wrlock()           rw_wrlock()
         pthread_rwlock_trywrlock()        rw_trywrlock()
         pthread_rwlock_unlock()           rw_unlock()
         pthread_rwlock_destroy()          rwlock_destroy()
         pthread_rwlockattr_init()         -
         pthread_rwlockattr_destroy()      -
         pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared()   -
         pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared()   -
      Functions Related to Semaphores
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         sem_init()                    sema_init()
         sem_open()                    -
         sem_close()                   -
         sem_wait()                    sema_wait()
         sem_trywait()                 sema_trywait()
         sem_post()                    sema_post()
         sem_getvalue()                -
         sem_unlink()                  -
         sem_destroy()                 sema_destroy()
      Functions Related to fork() Clean Up
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_atfork()              -
      Functions Related to Limits
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         pthread_once()                -
      Functions Related to Debugging
             POSIX (libpthread)            Solaris (libthread)
         -                             thr_stksegment()
         POSIX   (libpthread)         Solaris   (libthread)    Multi-
         threaded behavior is asynchronous, and therefore,  optimized
         for concurrent and parallel processing.  As threads,  always
         from  within  the  same process and  sometimes from multiple
         processes, share global data with each other, they  are  not
         guaranteed exclusive
          access to the shared data at any point  in  time.  Securing
         mutually exclusive access to shared data requires  synchron-
         ization among the threads. Both POSIX and Solaris  implement
         four  synchronization  mechanisms:  mutexes, condition vari-
         ables,  reader/writer  locking    (optimized   frequent-read
         occasional-write mutex), and semaphores.
         Synchronizing multiple threads diminishes their concurrency.
         The  coarser  the  grain  of  synchronization,  that is, the
         larger the block of code that is locked, the lesser the con-
      MT fork()
         If a POSIX threads  program  calls  fork(2),  it  implicitly
         calls  fork1(2),  which  replicates only the calling thread.
         Should there be any outstanding mutexes throughout the  pro-
         cess,  the  application should call pthread_atfork(3THR), to
         wait for and acquire those mutexes, prior to calling fork().
         Scheduling allocation size per thread is greater  than  one.
         POSIX supports the following three scheduling policies:
               Timesharing (TS) scheduling policy. It is based on the
               timesharing scheduling class.
               First-In-First-Out (FIFO) scheduling  policy.  Threads
               scheduled  to  this  policy,  if  not  pre-empted by a
               higher  priority,  will  proceed   until   completion.
               Threads    whose    contention    scope    is   system
               (PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM)   are   in    real-time    (RT)
               scheduling  class.  The  calling  process  must have a
               effective user ID of 0. SCHED_FIFO for  threads  whose
               contention  scope's process (PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS) is
               based on the TS scheduling class.
               Round-Robin scheduling policy.  Threads  scheduled  to
               this  policy,  if not pre-empted by a higher priority,
               will execute for a time period determined by the  sys-
               tem.   Threads   whose   contention  scope  is  system
               (PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM) are in real-time (RT)  schedul-
               ing  class  and the calling process must have a effec-
               tive user ID of 0. SCHED_RR for threads whose  conten-
               tion scope is process (PTHREAD_SCOPE_PROCESS) is based
               on the TS scheduling class.
         Only scheduling policy supported is  SCHED_OTHER,  which  is
         timesharing, based on the TS scheduling class.
         The standard threads implementation is a two-level model  in
         which user-level threads are multiplexed over possibly fewer
         lightweight processes, or LWPs.  An LWP is  the  fundamental
         unit  of  execution that is dispatched to a processor by the
         operating system.
         The system provides an alternate threads  implementation,  a
         one-level  model, in which user-level threads are associated
         one-to-one with LWPs.  This implementation is  simpler  than
         the  standard  implementation  and may be beneficial to some
         multithreaded applications.  It provides  exactly  the  same
         interfaces,  both  for POSIX threads and Solaris threads, as
         the standard implementation.
         To link with the alternate implementation, use the following
         runpath (-R) options when linking the program:
         cc -mt ... -lpthread ... -R /usr/lib/lwp     (32-bit)
         cc -mt ... -lpthread ... -R /usr/lib/lwp/64  (64-bit)
         cc -mt ... -R /usr/lib/lwp     (32-bit)
         cc -mt ... -R /usr/lib/lwp/64  (64-bit)
         For multithreaded programs that have been previously  linked
         with the standard threads library, the environment variables
         LD_LIBRARY_PATH and LD_LIBRARY_PATH_64 can be set as follows
         to  bind  the  program  at  runtime to the alternate threads
         Note that if an LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable  is  in
         effect  for  a  secure process, then only the trusted direc-
         tories specified by this variable will be used  to   augment
         the runtime linker's search rules.
         The runtime linker may also be instructed to use  this  lib-
         thread  by  establishing  an  alternative  object cache; see
         crle(1) with the -a option.
         When using the alternate one-level  threads  implementation,
         be  aware  that  it  may  create more LWPs than the standard
         implementation using unbound threads.  LWPs consume  operat-
         ing system memory in contrast to threads, which consume only
         user-level memory.  Thus a multithreaded application  linked
         against this library that creates thousands of threads would
         create an equal number of LWPs and might run the system  out
         of resources required to support the application.
         In a multi-threaded application, linked with  libpthread  or
         libthread,  EINTR  may  be  returned whenever another thread
         calls  fork(2), which calls  fork1(2) instead.
         See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
        |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
        | MT-Level                    | MT-Safe, Fork 1-Safe        |
         /usr/include/pthread.h /lib/libpthread.* /lib/libposix4.*
         /usr/include/thread.h /usr/include/sched.h /lib/libthread.*
         crle(1),           fork(2),            pthread_atfork(3THR),
         pthread_create(3THR), attributes(5), standards(5)
         Linker and Libraries Guide

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