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xemacs ()
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  • Ключ xemacs обнаружен в базе ключевых слов.
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    NAME
         xemacs - Emacs: The Next Generation
    
    SYNOPSIS
         xemacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]
    
    DESCRIPTION
         XEmacs is a version of Emacs, compatible with and containing
         many  improvements over GNU Emacs, written by Richard Stall-
         man of the Free  Software  Foundation.   It  was  originally
         based  on  an early release of GNU Emacs Version 19, and has
         tracked subsequent releases of GNU Emacs as they have become
         available.
    
         The primary documentation of XEmacs is in the XEmacs  Refer-
         ence  Manual,  which you can read on-line using Info, a sub-
         system of XEmacs.  Please look there for  complete  and  up-
         to-date  documentation.   Complete  documentation  on  using
         Emacs Lisp is available  on-line  through  the  XEmacs  Lisp
         Programmer's  Manual.   Both manuals also can be printed out
         nicely using the TeX formatting package.
    
         The user  functionality  of  XEmacs  encompasses  everything
         other  Emacs  editors  do, and it is easily extensible since
         its editing commands are written in Lisp.
    
         XEmacs has an extensive interactive help facility,  but  the
         facility assumes that you know how to manipulate XEmacs win-
         dows and buffers.  CTRL-h enters the  Help  facility.   Help
         Tutorial  (CTRL-h  t) requests an interactive tutorial which
         can teach beginners the fundamentals  of  XEmacs  in  a  few
         minutes.   Help  Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command
         given  its  functionality,  Help  Key  Binding  (CTRL-h   k)
         describes  a  given key sequence's effect, and Help Function
         (CTRL-h f) describes a  given  Lisp  function  specified  by
         name.   You  can  also  look  up key sequences in the XEmacs
         Reference Manual using Lookup Key Binding  (CTRL-h  CTRL-k),
         and  look  up Lisp functions in the XEmacs Lisp Programmer's
         Manual using Lookup Function (CTRL-h CTRL-f).  All of  these
         help  functions, and more, are available on the Help menu if
         you are using a window system.
    
         XEmacs has extensive GUI (graphical user interface)  support
         when running under a window system such as X, including mul-
         tiple frames (top-level windows), a menubar, a toolbar, hor-
         izontal and vertical scrollbars, dialog boxes, and extensive
         mouse support.
    
         XEmacs has full  support  for  multiple  fonts  and  colors,
         variable-width  fonts, and variable-height lines, and allows
         for pixmaps to be inserted into a buffer. (This is  used  in
         the  W3 web-browsing package and in some of the debugger and
         outlining interfaces, among other things.)
    
         XEmacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your
         buffers, so it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
    
         XEmacs's many special packages handle mail reading (VM, MH-E
         and RMail) and sending (Mail), Usenet news reading and post-
         ing (GNUS), World Wide Web browsing (W3), specialized  modes
         for editing source code in all common programming languages,
         syntax highlighting for many languages (Font-Lock),  compil-
         ing  (Compile),  running  subshells  within  XEmacs  windows
         (Shell), outline editing (Outline),  running  a  Lisp  read-
         eval-print   loop   (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  and  automated
         psychotherapy (Doctor).
    
         There is an extensive reference manual, but users  of  other
         Emacsen  should  have little trouble adapting even without a
         copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use basic features
         fairly  rapidly by studying the tutorial and using the self-
         documentation features.
    
         XEmacs Options
    
         XEmacs accepts all standard X Toolkit command  line  options
         when run in an X Windows environment.  In addition, the fol-
         lowing options are accepted (when options imply  a  sequence
         of  actions  to  perform,  they  are  performed in the order
         encountered):
    
         -t file Use specified file as the terminal instead of  using
                 stdin/stdout.  This implies -nw.
    
         -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will  send  messages
                 to  stdout.   You  must  use  the  -l, -f, and -eval
                 options to specify files to execute and functions to
                 call.
    
         -nw     Inhibit  the  use  of   any   window-system-specific
                 display code: use the current TTY.
    
         -debug-init
                 Enter the debugger if an error  occurs  loading  the
                 init file.
    
         -unmapped
                 Do not map the initial frame.
    
         -no-site-file
                 Do not  load  the  site-specific  init  file  (site-
                 start.el).
    
         -q, -no-init-file
                 Do not load an init file.
    
         -no-early-packages
                 Do not process the early packages.
    
         -vanilla
                 Load no extra files at startup.  Equivalent  to  the
                 combination of -q , -no-site-file , and -no-packages
    
         -u user, -user user
                 Load user's init file.
    
         file    Edit file.
    
         +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert  a
                 space between the "+" sign and the number).
    
         -help   Print a help message and exit.
    
         -V, -version,
                 Print the version number and exit.
    
         -f function, -funcall function
                 Execute the lisp function function.
    
         -l file, -load file
                 Load the Lisp code in the file file.
    
         -eval form
                 Evaluate the Lisp form form.
    
         -i file, -insert file
                 Insert file into the current buffer.
    
         -kill   Exit XEmacs (useful with -batch).
    
         Using XEmacs with X
    
         XEmacs has been tailored to work well with the X window sys-
         tem.  If you run XEmacs from under X windows, it will create
         its own X window to display in.  You will probably  want  to
         start  the  editor  as  a background process so that you can
         continue using your original window.
    
         XEmacs can be started with the following standard X options:
    
         -visual <visualname><bitdepth>
              Select the visual that  XEmacs  will  attempt  to  use.
              <visualname>   should  be  one  of  the  strings  "Sta-
              ticColor", "TrueColor", "GrayScale",  "PseudoColor"  or
              "DirectColor",  and  <bitdepth> should be the number of
              bits per pixel (example, "-visual  TrueColor24"  for  a
              24bit TrueColor visual) See X(1) for more information.
    
         -privateColormap
              Require XEmacs to create and use a private colormap for
              display.  This will keep XEmacs from taking colors from
              the  default  colormap  and  keeping  them  from  other
              clients.
    
         -geometry ##x##+##+##
              Specify the geometry of the initial window.   The  ##'s
              represent a number; the four numbers are width (charac-
              ters), height (characters), X offset  (pixels),  and  Y
              offset  (pixels), respectively.  Partial specifications
              of the form ##x## or  +##+##  are  also  allowed.  (The
              geometry specification is in the standard X format; see
              X(1) for more information.)
    
         -iconic
              Specifies that  the  initial  window  should  initially
              appear iconified.
    
         -name name
                 Specifies the program name which should be used when
                 looking up defaults in the user's X resources.
    
         -title title, -T title, -wn title
                 Specifies the title which should be assigned to  the
                 XEmacs window.
    
         -d displayname, -display displayname
                 Create the XEmacs window on the display specified by
                 displayname.   Must be the first option specified in
                 the command line.
    
         -font font, -fn font
                 Set the XEmacs window's font to  that  specified  by
                 font.   You  will  find  the  various X fonts in the
                 /usr/lib/X11/fonts  directory.   XEmacs  works  with
                 either  fixed-  or  variable-width  fonts,  but will
                 probably look better with a fixed-width font.
    
         -scrollbar-width pixels
                 Specify the width of the vertical scrollbars.
    
         -scrollbar-height pixels
                 Specify the height of the horizontal scrollbars.
    
         -bw pixels, -borderwidth pixels
                 Set the XEmacs window's border width to  the  number
                 of  pixels  specified  by  pixels.   Defaults to one
                 pixel on each side of the window.
    
         -ib pixels, -internal-border-width pixels
                 Specify the width between a frame's border  and  its
                 text, in pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side
                 of the window.
    
         -fg color, -foreground color
                 Sets the color of the text.
    
                 See the file  /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt  for  a  list  of
                 valid color names.
    
         -bg color, -background color
                 Sets the color of the window's background.
    
         -bd color, -bordercolor color
                 Sets the color of the window's border.
    
         -mc color
                 Sets the color of the mouse pointer.
    
         -cr color
                 Sets the color of the text cursor.
    
         -rv, -reverse
                 Reverses  the  foreground  and   background   colors
                 (reverse  video).   Consider  explicitly setting the
                 foreground and background colors  instead  of  using
                 this option.
    
         -xrm argument
                 This allows you to set an arbitrary resource on  the
                 command line.  argument should be a resource specif-
                 ication, as might as in your  .Xresources  or  .Xde-
                 faults file.
    
         You can also set resources, i.e.  X default values, for your
         XEmacs  windows  in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file (see
         xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:
    
              Emacs.keyword:value
    
         or
    
              Emacs*EmacsFrame.keyword:value
    
         where value specifies the default value of  keyword.   (Some
         resources need the former format; some the latter.)
    
         You can also set resources for a particular frame  by  using
         the format
    
              Emacs*framename.keyword:value
    
         where framename is the resource name assigned to  that  par-
         ticular  frame.   (Certain  packages, such as VM, give their
         frames unique resource names, in this case "VM".)
    
         XEmacs lets you set default values for  the  following  key-
         words:
    
         default.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
                 Sets the window's text font.
    
         default.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
                 Sets the window's text color.
    
         default.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
                 Sets the window's background color.
    
         face.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
                 Sets the font for face, which should be the name  of
                 a face.  Common face names are
    
                 FACE            PURPOSE
                 default         Normal text.
                 bold            Bold text.
                 italic          Italicized text.
                 bold-italic     Bold and italicized text.
                 modeline        Modeline text.
                 zmacs-region    Text selected with the mouse.
                 highlight       Text  highlighted  when  the   mouse
                                 passes over.
                 left-margin     Text in the left margin.
                 right-margin    Text in the right margin.
                 isearch         Text highlighted during  incremental
                                 search.
                 info-node       Text of Info menu items.
                 info-xref       Text of Info cross references.
    
         face.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
                 Sets the foreground color for face.
    
         face.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
                 Sets the background color for face.
    
    Face.AttributeBackgroundPixmap)
         face.attributeBackgroundPixmap                             (class
                 Sets the background pixmap (stipple) for face.
    
         face.attributeUnderline (class Face.AttributeUnderline)
                 Whether face should be underlined.
    
         reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
                 If set to  on,  the  window  will  be  displayed  in
                 reverse  video.   Consider  explicitly  setting  the
                 foreground and background colors  instead  of  using
                 this resources.
    
         borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                 Sets the window's border width in pixels.
    
         internalBorderWidth (class InternalBorderWidth)
                 Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.
    
         borderColor (class BorderColor)
                 Sets the color of the window's border.
    
         cursorColor (class Foreground)
                 Sets the color of the window's text cursor.
    
         pointerColor (class Foreground)
                 Sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.
    
         emacsVisual (class EmacsVisual)
                 Sets the default visual XEmacs will try to  use  (as
                 described above).
    
         privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
                 If set, XEmacs  will  default  to  using  a  private
                 colormap.
    
         geometry (class Geometry)
                 Sets the geometry of the XEmacs window (as described
                 above).
    
         iconic (class Iconic)
                 If set to  on,  the  XEmacs  window  will  initially
                 appear as an icon.
    
         menubar (class Menubar)
                 Whether the  XEmacs  window  will  have  a  menubar.
                 Defaults to true.
    
         initiallyUnmapped (class InitiallyUnmapped)
                 Whether XEmacs will leave the initial frame unmapped
                 when it starts up.
    
         barCursor (class BarCursor)
                 Whether the cursor should be a bar  instead  of  the
                 traditional box.
    
         title (class Title)
                 Sets the title of the XEmacs window.
    
         iconName (class Title)
                 Sets the icon name for the XEmacs window icon.
    
         scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
                 Sets the width of the vertical scrollbars,  in  pix-
                 els.  A width of 0 means no vertical scrollbars.
    
         scrollBarHeight (class ScrollBarHeight)
                 Sets the height of  the  horizontal  scrollbars,  in
                 pixels.    A   height   of  0  means  no  horizontal
                 scrollbars.
    
         scrollBarPlacement (class ScrollBarPlacement)
                 Sets  the  position  of  vertical   and   horizontal
                 scrollbars.    Should  be  one  of the strings "top-
                 left",  "bottom-left",  "top-right",   or   "bottom-
                 right".  The default is "bottom-right" for the Motif
                 and  Lucid  scrollbars  and  "buttom-left"  for  the
                 Athena scrollbars.
    
         topToolBarHeight (class TopToolBarHeight)
                 Sets the height of the top toolbar,  in  pixels.   0
                 means no top toolbar.
    
         bottomToolBarHeight (class BottomToolBarHeight)
                 Sets the height of the bottom toolbar, in pixels.  0
                 means no bottom toolbar.
    
         leftToolBarWidth (class LeftToolBarWidth)
                 Sets the width of the left toolbar,  in  pixels.   0
                 means no left toolbar.
    
         rightToolBarWidth (class RightToolBarWidth)
                 Sets the width of the right toolbar, in  pixels.   0
                 means no right toolbar.
    
         topToolBarShadowColor (class TopToolBarShadowColor)
                 Sets the color of the top shadows for the  toolbars.
                 (For  all  toolbars, not just the toolbar at the top
                 of the frame.)
    
         bottomToolBarShadowColor (class BottomToolBarShadowColor)
                 Sets the color of the bottom shadows for  the  tool-
                 bars. (For all toolbars, not just the toolbar at the
                 bottom of the frame.)
    
         topToolBarShadowPixmap (class TopToolBarShadowPixmap)
                 Sets the pixmap of the top shadows for the toolbars.
                 (For  all  toolbars, not just the toolbar at the top
                 of the frame.) If set, this resource  overrides  the
                 corresponding color resource.
    
         bottomToolBarShadowPixmap (class BottomToolBarShadowPixmap)
                 Sets the pixmap of the bottom shadows for the  tool-
                 bars. (For all toolbars, not just the toolbar at the
                 bottom of the frame.) If set,  this  resource  over-
                 rides the corresponding color resource.
    
         toolBarShadowThickness (class ToolBarShadowThickness)
                 Thickness of the shadows  around  the  toolbars,  in
                 pixels.
    
         visualBell (class VisualBell)
                 Whether XEmacs should flash the screen  rather  than
                 making an audible beep.
    
         bellVolume (class BellVolume)
                 Volume of the audible beep.  Range is 0 through 100.
    
         useBackingStore (class UseBackingStore)
                 Whether XEmacs should set the  backing-store  attri-
                 bute  of  the  X windows it creates.  This increases
                 the memory usage of the X server but  decreases  the
                 amount  of X traffic necessary to update the screen,
                 and is useful when the connection to  the  X  server
                 goes  over a low-bandwidth line such as a modem con-
                 nection.
    
         textPointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor to use when the mouse is over text.
    
         selectionPointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor to use when the mouse is  over  a  mouse-
                 highlighted text region.
    
         spacePointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor to use when the mouse  is  over  a  blank
                 space  in a buffer (that is, after the end of a line
                 or after the end-of-file).
    
         modeLinePointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor to use when the  mouse  is  over  a  mode
                 line.
    
         gcPointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor to display when a  garbage-collection  is
                 in progress.
    
         scrollbarPointer (class Cursor)
                 The cursor  to  use  when  the  mouse  is  over  the
                 scrollbar.
    
         pointerColor (class Foreground)
                 The foreground color of the mouse cursor.
    
         pointerBackground (class Background)
                 The background color of the mouse cursor.
    
         Using the Mouse
    
         The following lists the mouse button bindings for the XEmacs
         window under X11.
    
         MOUSE BUTTON         FUNCTION
         left                 Set point or make a text selection.
         middle               Paste text.
         right                Pop up a menu of options.
         SHIFT-left           Extend a selection.
         CTRL-left            Make  a  selection  and  insert  it  at
                              point.
         CTRL-middle          Set point and move selected text there.
         CTRL-SHIFT-left      Make a selection, delete it, and insert
                              it at point.
         META-left            Make a rectangular selection.
    
    FILES
         Lisp code is read at startup  from  the  user's  init  file,
         $HOME/.emacs.
    
         /usr/local/info - files for the Info  documentation  browser
         (a  subsystem  of XEmacs) to refer to.  The complete text of
         the XEmacs Reference Manual and the XEmacs Lisp Programmer's
         Manual is included in a convenient tree structured form.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/info - the Info files may  be
         here instead.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/src  -  C  source  files  and
         object files.  (May not be present.)
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/lisp/* -  Lisp  source  files
         and  compiled  files that define most editing commands.  The
         files are contained in subdirectories, categorized by  func-
         tion  or individual package.  Some are preloaded; others are
         autoloaded from these directories when used.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc - some files of  informa-
         tion,  pixmap  files, other data files used by certain pack-
         ages, etc.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION - various pro-
         grams that are used with XEmacs.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/$CONFIGURATION/DOC - contains
         the  documentation  strings  for  the  Lisp  primitives  and
         preloaded Lisp functions of XEmacs.  They are stored here to
         reduce the size of XEmacs proper.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/SERVICE  -  lists  people
         offering   various  services  to  assist  users  of  XEmacs,
         including education, troubleshooting, porting and customiza-
         tion.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs/lock - holds lock files that are  made
         for  all  files  being modified in XEmacs, to prevent simul-
         taneous modification of one file by two users.
    
         /usr/local/lib/xemacs/site-lisp  -   locally-provided   Lisp
         files.
    
         /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.
    
    BUGS AND HELP
         There  is  a  newsgroup,  comp.emacs.xemacs,  for  reporting
         XEmacs  bugs  and  fixes  and  requesting  help.  But before
         reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that  it
         really  is  a  bug,  not  a misunderstanding or a deliberate
         feature.  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting  XEmacs
         Bugs'' near the end of the reference manual (or Info system)
         for hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the
         version  number of the XEmacs you are running and the system
         you are running it on in every bug report that you send  in.
         Finally, the more you can isolate the cause of a bug and the
         conditions it happens under, the more likely  it  is  to  be
         fixed, so please take the time to do so.
    
         The newsgroup is bidirectionally gatewayed to and  from  the
         mailing  list  xemacs@xemacs.org.   You  can  read  the list
         instead of the newsgroup  if  you  do  not  have  convenient
         Usenet  news  access.  To request to be added to the mailing
         list, send mail to xemacs-request@xemacs.org. (Do  not  send
         mail to the list itself.)
    
         The XEmacs maintainers read the newsgroup regularly and will
         attempt  to fix bugs reported in a timely fashion.  However,
         not every message will get a response from one of the  main-
         tainers.   Note  that  there  are many people other than the
         maintainers who read the newsgroup, and will usually  be  of
         assistance in helping with any problems encountered.
    
         If you need more personal assistance than can be provided by
         the  newsgroup,  look  in the SERVICE file (see above) for a
         list of people who offer it.
    
         For more information about XEmacs  mailing  lists,  see  the
         file /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.
    
    UNRESTRICTIONS
         XEmacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of XEmacs  to
         anyone  under  the terms stated in the XEmacs General Public
         License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of XEmacs and
         which also appears in the reference manual.
         Copies of XEmacs may sometimes  be  received  packaged  with
         distributions  of  Unix systems, but it is never included in
         the scope of  any  license  covering  those  systems.   Such
         inclusion  violates  the terms on which distribution is per-
         mitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General  Public
         License  is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other res-
         trictions to redistribution of XEmacs.
    
    SEE ALSO
         X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1), emacs(1), vi(1)
    
    AUTHORS
         XEmacs was written by Steve Baur <steve@xemacs.org>,  Martin
         Buchholz      <martin@xemacs.org>,      Richard     Mlynarik
         <mly@adoc.xerox.com>, Hrvoje Niksic <hniksic@srce.hr>, Chuck
         Thompson <cthomp@xemacs.org>, Ben Wing <wing@666.com>, Jamie
         Zawinski <jwz@netscape.com>, and many others.  It was  based
         on  an  early  version  of  GNU Emacs Version 19, written by
         Richard Stallman <rms@gnu.org> of the Free Software  Founda-
         tion,  and  has  tracked subsequent releases of GNU Emacs as
         they have become available.  It was  originally  written  by
         Lucid, Inc.  (now defunct) and was called Lucid Emacs.
    
         Chuck Thompson wrote the XEmacs redisplay engine,  maintains
         the  XEmacs  FTP and WWW sites, and has put out all releases
         of XEmacs since 19.11 (the  first  release  called  XEmacs).
         Ben Wing wrote the Asian-language support, the on-line docu-
         mentation (including this man page and much of the FAQ), the
         external  widget  code,  and retooled or rewrote most of the
         basic, low-level XEmacs subsystems.  Jamie Zawinski put  out
         all  releases  of Lucid Emacs, from the first (19.0) through
         the last (19.10), and was the primary code  contributor  for
         all  of these releases.  Richard Mlynarik rewrote the XEmacs
         Lisp-object allocation system, improved the keymap and mini-
         buffer code, and did the initial synching of XEmacs with GNU
         Emacs Version 19.
    
         Many others have also contributed significantly.   For  more
         detailed  information,  including  a  long history of XEmacs
         from multiple viewpoints and pretty pictures and bios of the
         major  XEmacs  contributors,  see the XEmacs About Page (the
         About XEmacs option on the Help menu).
    
    MORE INFORMATION
         For more information about XEmacs, see the XEmacs About Page
         (mentioned  above),  look in the file /usr/local/lib/xemacs-
         $VERSION/etc/NEWS, or point your Web browser at
    
         http://www.xemacs.org/
    
         for up-to-the-minute information about XEmacs.
    
         The XEmacs FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) can be found  at
         the Web site just listed.  A possibly out-of-date version is
         also accessible through the Info system inside of XEmacs.
    
         The  latest  version  of  XEmacs  can  be  downloaded  using
         anonymous FTP from
    
         ftp://ftp.xemacs.org/pub/xemacs/
    
         or from a mirror site near you.  Mirror sites are listed  in
         the  file  etc/FTP in the XEmacs distribution or see the Web
         site for an up-to-date list of mirror sites.
    
    
    
    


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