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Motif FAQ (Part 7 of 9)

Motif Frequently Asked Questions (with answers).
Archive-name: motif-faq/part7
Last-modified: 1 FEB 2002
Posting-Frequency: irregular
Organization: Kenton Lee, X/Motif Consultant,
Version: 8.1


Subject: 229)  What is ViewKit? Is there a free version?
[Last modified: Jun 98]

Answer: ViewKit is an enhanced version of the C++/Motif framework that Doug
Young describes in his book *Object-Oriented Programming with C++ and
OSF/Motif* (Prentice-Hall).

Viewkit is now available for a variety of platforms from ICS.  The Linux
version is free.  Their web site include free technical papers and ordering

There is also a inexpensive ViewKit clone from the Hungry Programmers:

Allen Fogleson ( writes: I have compiled [the Hungry
Programmers' version] on my linux system using RedHat Motif 2.0, There is no
documentation, but the technical paper on the SGI site should be enough to get
most people going. There is very little in the way of documentation either, so
I should note that if you are using Motif2.0 you must either #define
USE_MOTIF20 in a header file, or add it to the CXXFLAGS, and CFLAGS line of
the makefile or you will get many errors when compiling the combo box
bindings. Also for some reason the viewkit did not install correctly for me
and I ended up hand installing it myself. I have compiled some simple
applications with it, and it seems to be working fine. It is intended to
follow the SGI API. They are working on a programmers guide and a reference
manual for the product. All in All this is a very affordable (spelled cheap)
answer to C++ development of OSF/Motif Apps.

Subject: 230)  Is there a C++ binding for Motif?
[Last modified: Nov 98]

Answer: This answer is out-of-date and will probably be dropped in the near
future.  I recommend that you study other sources, such as trade magazines,
for more current information on products.

See also the previous answer concerning ViewKit (from Doug Young and the
Hungry Programmers.

(Added Oct. 95) YACL is a freely available C++ class library that includes GUI
classes based on the Model-View-Controller paradigm. The class protocols are
designed in a platform independent manner, and are implemented under Motif 1.2
as well as under Microsoft Windows and OS/2. This makes it possible to
maintain a single code base for an application that runs on all three
platforms. YACL also includes a suite of container and data storage classes
for general-purpose programming. YACL is available from in
pub/yacl. For more information, see the web page:

Thanks to M. A. Sridhar,

(Added Sept. 95; URL updated Jan. 96) Amulet User Interface Toolkit from Brad
A. Myers, Rich McDaniel, Andrew Mickish, Alex Klimovitski, Carnegie Mellon
University.  Amulet is a user interface software environment for C++ to
support future user interface software research.  This environment, which will
be portable across X/11, Microsoft Windows, and the Macintosh, is designed to
be very flexible: parts can be replaced and new technologies and widgets can
be easily created and evaluated.  Built-in support will be provided for direct
manipulation, multi-font text editing, gesture recognition, speech
recognition, 2-D and 3-D animations, visualizations including maps and large
data sets, world-wide-web browsing and editing, and multiple people
interacting with the system at the same time (CSCW).  Another goal is to be
useful for students, which means that Amulet must be easy to learn.  Finally,
the system will provide sufficient performance, robustness and documentation
so it will be useful for general user interface developers.  See:

Answer: ObjectBuilder by Openware Technologies, Inc. is a complete C++
implementation of Motif. Kris Gottschalk ( wrote
[I've condensed his features list and a few others]:

Since Solbourne began developing OI around 1988, it was purchased by ParcPlace
Systems (at which time ObjectBuilder was developed) and as of Oct. '94,
ObjectBuilder/OI was purchased by Openware Technologies, Inc from ParcPlace.
OI is now on release 4.6 and has a customer base of about 3,000 seats.

[ObjectBuilder's features include: Visual Subclassing, Dynamic Reparenting,
Customizable Main Window, Xt Kit, Resource Editors, Flexible Geometry
Management, Customizable palattes and attribute editors, 16 Bit
Internationalization, Mnemonics and Accelerator Editor, Motif or OPEN LOOK
look-and-feel switch, Help Editor.]

ObjectBuilder is currently available on Sun/Solaris, HP 9000/700 and IBM AIX
RS6000.  We will also be supporting SGI, DEC Alpha, Sco UNIX, Unysis Unixware
and NCR SVR4 throughout the first half of 1995.  And our anxiously awaited
Windows NT platform will be available in late 1995.  In addition, Openware
will be launching a full array of C++ development tools including an Object
Repository, Debugger, OI Table Widget and Adapter.  Also anticipate an
ObjectBuilder upgrade 2.6/4.6 in April and a new ObjectBuilder release 3.0/5.0
in the summer.

If you have any more interests or questions or would like to set up a
evaluation of ObjectBuilder, please contact:

Kris Gottschalk
Account Manager
Openware Technologies, Inc.
Object Technologies Business Unit
4909 East Pearl Circle  Suite 200
Boulder, CO  80301
Phone: 303-440-9991 x4224
Fax: 303-440-9934

Answer: Wind/U implements MFC (Microsoft Foundation Classes) on Unix using
Motif.  Bristol Technology, Inc. (203) 438-6969,  Microsoft
Visual C++ together with Wind/U can be used to create Motif applications.
According to J. Daniel Smith <>, here's how it works: you
create the application on the PC using MSVC++ and then port it to Unix (or
VMS) using Wind/U.  Since Wind/U uses X and Motif to implement the Windows
API, you end up with a true Motif application running native on the target

Answer: WWL is a library which defines C++ classes around X Toolkit Widgets.
It is intended to simplify the task of C++ code writers when using the Toolkit
by providing them with C++ objects, methods, type checking and several utility
functions and classes.

WWL has been tested under SunOs4.0.3 on sun3 and sun4, HPUX version 6.5 and
7.0 and Ultrix 4.0 on DECstation 3100 and 5000. It is expected to work on most
other UNIX systems without too many problems.

WWL is distributed as a tar file with all the source, documentation and
example. The file is available using anonymous ftp from            /R5contrib/WWW-1.2.tar.Z

( )

Answer: Rogue Wave Software has a C++ binding for Motif called View.h++.

"View.h++ is a complete C++ interface to OSF/Motif.  It doesn't just
encapsulate it, but also includes a set of classes that provide a level of
abstraction above Motif, thus simplifying menu and dialog creation, XmStrings,
XmFontLists, etc.  View.h++ supports a Model- View-Controller architecture,
allowing for an even more object-oriented interface design.  Includes a copy
of Rogue Wave's Tools.h++ (foundation class library)" Rogue Wave also offers
full support for View.h++.

It is currently available for Sun Sparc, IBM RS/6000, HP 9000/700 series, SCO,
Intel SVR4 ESIX.  Please call for Silicon Graphics and DEC Ultrix status.

For additional information, please contact:

Matt Steinauer
Rogue Wave Software, Inc.
P.O. Box 2328
Corvallis, OR 97339
Phone: (503)754-3010
Fax:   (503)757-6650

Answer: Builder Xcessory 3.0, an interface builder from ICS, allows the user
to visually build C++ classes from Motif and user-written widgets.  C++ code
is generated in the "Doug Young" fashion.  (Doug actually worked on this
project with ICS.)  C and UIL can also be generated.

Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. (ICS) 201 Broadway, Cambridge, MA  02139
USA   617/621-0060

Answer: wrote: The GINA++ application framework
contains an encapsulation of the OSF/Motif widg et classes and the Xt
functionality into C++ classes. Its functionality is comparab le to that of
the ULowell binding and the WWL. Additionally, it provides an easy-to -use
framework for modeling new composite and primitive widget classes, plus an
application framework similar to ET++ or MacApp build on top of it. The
binding may be used independently from the framework classes. GINA++ is
available through anonymous ftp from in the directory
/gmd/ginaplus.  Documentation about the Motif binding has been published in
the X Resource Journal, Number 2, 1992, Pages 106-130. The binding compiles
with AT&T C++ 2.1 and GNU G+ + 2.1 and has been tested on SunOS 4.1.[12],
X11R4 and Motif 1.1.3.

Answer: Motif++ is a library that defines C++ class "wrappers" for the widgets
defined in the X11R5 OSF/Motif-1.2 widget library.  It also supports
X11R4/Motif-1.1 as well.

Motif++ is also an application toolkit that provides other tools in
conjunction with the widget wrapper classes.  It has support for the Xbae
widget set, plus other widgets.  It has Imake support, and lots of test files.
Motif++ also has alot of contributed software.

Motif++ is very similar to other public domain widget libraries such as The
Widget Wrapper Library (WWL) and the C++ Binding for OSF/Motif developed at
the University of Lowell. The two latter libraries are the result of much
larger efforts.

Available via anonymous ftp:

The /packages/motif++ also contains documentation.  For more information,
contact Ronald van Loon (  There is also mailing list
for Motif++:

To join, send email to the administrative address:

Answer: C++ Report, a magazine published by SIGS Publications, now regularly
publishes articles on X, Xt and Motif vs. C++ written by Ronald van Loon.

Answer: Xm++ is a user interface framework for the C++ language built upon X11
and the X-Toolkit. It is designed to be a simple and intuitive programming
interface to access the functionality of commonly used widgets.  Xm++ was
initially created for the Motif widget set, now support for the Athena widgets
was added. Applications created with Xm++ run in both environments without
changes, although many nice features are only available when using Motif.

Xm++ is available on: as: /R5contrib/Xm++.0.53.tar.Z ( ).

Answer: (updated November. 98) wxWindows is a toolkit for platform-independent
GUI programming in C++. It consists of several class libraries and tools.
wxWindows has been made freely available with no commercial restrictions. For
more information, see

Answer: (updated Sept. 95) Intersolv now markets, maintains, and enhances
C++/Views (formerly from Liant).  The C++/Views solution provides an
extensible object class library with visual development environment.  See Thanks to Uwe Baemayr ( for
the correction.

Answer: Quest has ObjectViews.

Answer: Doug Young has written a book "Object Oriented Programming with C++
and Motif", Prentice-Hall ISBN 0-13-630252-1 about using C++ without requiring
one of these toolkits.

Unfortunately, this library (last released in 9/92) has the same name as the
one by Ronald van Loon (  Motif++1.2 is a library
that defines C++ class "wrappers" for the widgets defined in the OSF/Motif-1.1
widget library.  Motif++1.2 is also an application toolkit that provides other
tools in conjunction with the widget wrapper classes.  One enhancement of
Motif++1.2 beyond its wrapper classes are the addition of an "application"
class which takes care of the low-level tasks including initializing X,
creating and managing one or more top-level shells, and entering the main
event loop.  Another feature of Motif++1.2 is its integration with The Widget
Creation Library (Wcl).  Motif++1.2 makes it easy to initialize Wcl and create
C++ wrappers for desired widgets in the widget tree.  Availability: anonymous
FTP at (, file pub/Motif++1.2.tar.Z.  Contact
Paul Felix, or

submitted by: mvc! ( Mark R. Biggers )

Subject: 231)  How can I avoid C++ String class and typedef char *String
conflicts?  We're using the USL C++ Standard Components which has the String
class.  This, however, conflicts with the typedef char *String found in
[Last modified: Oct 94]

Answer: This is very simple to workaround.  I agree that it is "wrong" but all
you need to do is:

#define String XtStringType
#include "all the X files"
#undef String

This will translate the offending symbol.

Thanks to Doug Rand <>

Subject: 232)  How can I have a C++ member function in a callback?
[Last modified: Oct 94]

Answer: There are three common user problems with C++ callbacks.  First, make
sure you use the correct function prototype for the function declarations.
Second, the callback function must be declared as a static member of the
class.  Third, when registering it with XtAddCallback(), you must use its full
signature.  For example: (from Ken Lee,

class MyClass {
void createWidgets();
static void myButtonCB(Widget, XtPointer, XtPointer);
void MyClass::createWidgets() {
w = XmCreatePushButton(...);
XtAddCallback(w, XmNactivateCallback, &MyClass::myButtonCB,
    (XtPointer) this);
void myButtonCB(Widget w, XtPointer clientData, XtPointer callData) {
MyClass *myclass = (MyClass *) clientData;

Note that the "this" pointer is used as the client data.  This technique is
popular, but not required.

Motif++ has a nice tutorial summarizing mechanisms (Ronald van Loon,  See his articles in the September, 1994 and
Nov/December, 1994 issues of C++ Report.

Doug Young's book deals extensively with one of these. The problem is that you
don't get the object when you just use the function as a callback.  You need
to pass the object as a pointer through as the client_data.  (use "this" as
the client_data.) Then you can retrieve the object's address, and dereference
from there. For example (Leo O'Donnell, Email:,

class MyButton {
        MyButton (Widget parent, const char *name) {
            _button = XtVaCreateManagedWidget (
                name, xmPushButtonWidgetClass, parent, NULL, 0);
            XtAddCallback (
                (XtPointer) this);
        ~MyButton () { XtDestroyWidget (_button); }
Widget  _button;
static  void activateCB (Widget, XtPointer, XtPointer);

void MyButton::activateCB (Widget, XtPointer thisBtn, XtPointer)
MyButton *btn = (MyButton *) thisBtn;

// OK you've got the button instance now. Do some stuff with it!

Subject: 233)  Is there a Common Lisp binding for Motif?
[Last modified: Oct 94]

Answer: Try CLM. This includes a toolkit demon (in C) that takes a widget
description (with callbacks), and forks a new process for each Motif
application (which can be just a single menu, or whatever).  Lisp can then
continue running, with a separate lightweight lisp process handling the
connection & callbacks.  In North America & net environs, CLM-2.3.tar.Z is
available from

There is also CLIM, the Common Lisp Interface Manager. It provides access to
motif and other toolkits and window systems.  Here is some blurb: "Version 2.0
of the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM) provides access to Motif. CLIM is
the emerging standard for GUI development in Common Lisp.  It offers a set of
high-level facilities that enable rapid construction of user interfaces.
Applications written using CLIM are portable across a variety of window
systems and toolkits.  For example, on the X window System, both Motif
(OSF/Motif) and Openlook (OLIT) are supported.  CLIM accesses the toolkit
directly rather than emulating the look and feel."

CLIM is available from a variety of Common Lisp vendors including Symbolics
and Franz Inc. (

Subject: 234)  Is there an Ada binding for Motif? (Part 1 of 2)
[Last modified: Jan 96]

Answer: Most of the information in this answer (parts 1 and 2) is probably
very dated by now. If anyone wants to provide updates, I'll include them. In
the meantime, Ada users are encouraged to visit the Ada Information
Clearinghouse (AdaIC) at:

(The Jan. 96 change updates the information provided by Thomson Software

Answer:  Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. (ICS) supplies Ada bindings to
Motif for a number of platforms and Ada compilers.  ICS also provides Builder
Xcessory, a Motif interface builder, which outputs Ada code usable with the
Ada bindings.  The product family is known collectively as the Ada Xcessories.

Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. (ICS) 201 Broadway, Cambridge, MA  02139
USA   617/621-0060

Information on Ada bindings to Motif and other services (such as SQL and
POSIX) can be found in a document maintained by the Ada Information
Clearinghouse.  The report can be found at

loc:    /public/ada-info/bindings.hlp.*
access: anonymous ftp

The suffix to the file (indicated above with an asterix) is the date of the
latest update to the document.  For example, the full name of the report
updated on 14 June 1993 would be


The file is ASCII.

------ Included File

[...Excerpted from the AdaIC report bindings.hlp.14Jun93...]
[...Updates can be found on, in the    ...]
[...file /public/ada-info/bindings.hlp.*  The suffix    ...]
[ always the date of the lastest version to the    ...]
[                                             ...]

                             SECTION 12
                          X-Window System:
                       OSF Motif and Open Look
                       Available Ada Bindings

12.1  Description and Standardization Efforts

The X-Window System is a network-transparent window system.  It supports one
or more screens containing overlapping windows or subwindows.  X display
servers distribute user input to and accept output requests from various
client programs located either on the same machine or elsewhere in the

    OSF Motif (Open Software Foundation/Motif) is a graphical user
    interface from OSF that provides a Presentation Manager look and
    feel for applications running on any system with X Window version
    11.  It conforms to POSIX, ANSI C and X/Open's XPG3 standards.

12.2  Resources Available from Software Reuse Libraries/Repositories

ASSET                                               (Updated:  November 1992)

The following information was taken in its entirety from the ASSET Library
Repository Catalog, October 9, 1992.  For more information on ASSET, see
Appendix C.


RELEASE_DATE      : 29-SEP-88


Interface to the X Window System An expression of the various concepts in Ada
that provides a full, working Ada specification of the X Window system.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

12.3  Products Available from Vendors

Advanced Technology Center                           (Updated:  November 1992)

The Advanced Technology Center (ATC) has an Ada binding to OSF Motif for their
AXI~ product.  AXI is currently available for most UNIX-based platforms, and
is supported by Verdix, Meridian, and TeleSoft compilers.

AXI is an Ada-to-X-Window System interface that provides the Ada programmer
access to the 500+ functions, libraries, and procedures contained in the X
library (Xlib), the X Toolkit (Xt), the X Extensible Library, the X
Miscellaneous Utilities, the Motif widget set and the Motif Resource Manager.

ATC is planning to develop an Ada binding to Open Look for AXI.

For more information, contact:
    Larry Paulson, Advanced Technology Center, 22982
    Mill Creek Drive, Laguna Hills, CA  92653, USA; Phone:

Thomson Software Products (formerly Alsys)                 (Updated:  Jan

Thomson Software Products markets the following Ada products: ObjectAda,
AdaWorld for Cross Development, ActivAda, ActivAda Real-Time, and perfoRMAx,
each described below. (Contact Thomson for pricing info.)

Product Name:       ObjectAda Hardware  SPARC-based systems OS        Solaris

ObjectAda is a complete object-oriented environment which is based on the new
standard for the Ada language, Ada 95.  ObjectAda gathers in a single
integrated environment all the tools needed for the development of Object
Oriented Ada applications and allows developers to increase productivity by
simplifying the repetitive tasks of the programming process.  ObjectAda
includes an Ada compiler which emphasizes compile-time error checking to
reduce mistakes and fully optimized code for compact, high-performance
applications.   A comprehensive, integrated toolset that is easy to use via an
OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface is included in the ObjectAda
environment, allowing programmers to reap the full power of all the tools with
minimum training.  The environment also  includes an Ada sensitive editor,
source-level symbolic debugger, profiler, and additional tools and bindings.

Product Name:       AdaWorld for Cross Development Hardware  Hosts: SPARC-
based systems, HP-RT, IBM,
  Targets:  680x0, 80x86, MIPS, PowerPC OS        Solaris, SunOS, UNIX, DOS,

For developing embedded, real-time applications, Thomson Software Products+
offers Ada development environments to assure maximum programmer productivity
while generating highly-optimized Ada applications.  Hosted on a broad range
of platforms, each environment includes a  powerful Ada compiler and runtime
system, as well as a comprehensive, integrated toolset that is easy to use via
an OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface. The environment also  includes an
Ada sensitive editor,  multi-library system, source-level symbolic debugger,
profiler, and additional tools and bindings. Ada development environments are
available for cross development targeting the Motorola 680x0, Intel 386/486,
MIPS, and PowerPC.

Product Name:       ActivAda Hardware  386, 486, or Pentium system OS
Windows, Windows NT, Windows 95

ActivAda is an Ada Integrated Development Environment (IDE) delivering the
combined power of 32-bit architecture, the Windows operating system and Ada in
one comprehensive product.  ActivAda+s robust functionality assures reliable,
high-quality code with dramatically reduced development time. ActivAda is
geared to the entire development cycle, providing a Windows Graphical User
Interface (GUI) with full point-and-click access to all development tools.
Development of Win32 applications is possible for both Windows,  Windows NT
and Windows 95.  In addition, a GUI Builder that generates Ada code, Ada
bindings to the Win32s API, a Win32s CodeView Debugger, and an interface to
Microsoft Visual C++ are all included.  All of these features are bundled
together with a validated Ada compiler and comprehensive toolset, providing a
solid technology base that has been in use in major development projects for
over 10 years.

Product Name:       ActivAda Real-Time Hardware  Hosts:  386/486/Pentium
  Targets:  386/486/Pentium OS        Windows, Windows 95

Finally, developers can create tight, fast code for Intel targets from an
easy-to-use Windows environment, while enjoying the full benefits of the Ada
language.  We+ve merged two powerful technologies:  our award-winning ActivAda
development environment, and our highly-optimized Intel cross compilation
system to produce a uniquely powerful and economical real-time development
platform.  ActivAda provides real-time and embedded developers with everything
they need to create cutting-edge, highly reliable Intel target code, all in
one package.

Product Name:       perfoRMAx Hardware  Hosts:  PC OS        Windows, Windows
95, Windows NT

perfoRMAx is a unique, easy-to-use graphical tool suite that applies the
mathematical principles of Rate Monotonic Analyst and other scheduling
techniques to your real-time system.  Used during proposal, specification,
design, implementation, and maintenance phases, perfoRMAx can save months or
years of wasted effort, millions of wasted dollars, and can even save lives
and assets.  perfoRMAx is an advanced engineering tool that enables real-time
developers and engineers to focus on the temporal aspects of real-time system
development and maintenance.  Through its unique analysis process, perfoRMAx
provides a framework for analyzing system timing behavior.

For more information, contact: Marianne Worley Thomson Software Products
(formerly Alsys) 10251 Vista Sorrento Parkway Suite 300 San Diego, CA 92121
Tel:  (619) 457-2700 x244 Toll Free:  (800) 833-0085 x244 Fax:  (619) 452-2117
Email: WWW:

Digital Equipment Corporation                       (Updated:  November 1992)

Digital Equipment Corporation has bindings available for GKS, PHIGS, SQL, and
OSF Motif for VAX Ada/VMS.  The Ada bindings are provided either as part of a
compiler product or the services/facilities that are provided by Digital and
its suppliers.

Host/Target:DEC VAX under VMS

For more information, contact:
    Mary Anne Cacciola, Digital Equipment
    Corporation, 110 Spit Brook Road, Nashua, NH  03062,
    USA; Phone:  (603) 881-1028

IBM                                              (Updated:  November 1992)

IBM's AIX Ada/6000 product provides a binding to GPEF and IBM AIXWindows (X-
Windows ... not Motif).  It runs on all models of the IBM RISC System/6000
under the IBM AIX Version 3.2 operating system. See also entries for Systems
Engineering Research Corporation (SERC) and Advanced Technology Center (ATC)
for Motif, GKS or PHIGS bindings for use with IBM AIX Ada/6000 products.

The AIX Ada/6000 licensed programs (5706-291 and 5706-294) consist of an
optimizing compiler, a run-time environment, a symbolic debugger, an Ada
"makefile" generator for use in automating and minimizing recompilation, Ada
library management tools and Ada language bindings to some key AIX subsystems.
With the exception of some system-specific aspects of the language, the Ada
language for the AIX operating system is source compatible with the Ada
language supported by IBM licensed programs in VM/CMS and MVS.

Host/Target:IBM RISC System/6000 under the IBM AIX Version 3.2 operating

This product conforms to the following standards:  ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A - Ada at
current level (1.11) of the ACVC test suite.

For more information, contact:
    Barry Lee, IBM Corporation, 844 Don Mills Road,
    North York, Ontario, Canada  M3C 1V7; Phone:  (416)
    448-3174; Fax: (416) 448-4810

Objective Interface Systems, Inc.                  (Updated:  November 1992)

Objective Interface Systems, Inc., has an Ada binding to X-windows (OSF Motif)
for its Screen Machine~ product.  The Screen Machine binding to Motif includes
a WYSIWYG drawing tool and an Ada code generator.


Sun SPARC/SunOS         Rational R1000/Delta    HP 9000/7XX; 8X7 IBM RISC
System/6000/AIXPC 386/486/ISC UNIX     HFSI WIS Workstation PC
286/386/486/MS-DOS   PC 386/486/SCO UNIX     DEC Ultrix; DEC VMS

For more information, contact:
    Phil Carrasco, Object Interface Systems, Inc.
    1895 Preston White Drive, Suite 250, Reston, VA
    22091-5448, USA; Phone: (703) 264-1900; Fax:
    703-264-1721; email (internet)

SL Corporation                                     (Updated: November 1992)

SL Corporation's SL-GMS toolkit includes Ada bindings to GPEF, GPPF, POSIX,
SQL, TCP/IP, OSF/Motif, and Open Look.

SL-GMS is a toolkit for developing dynamic graphics screens for real-time or
highly interactive applications.  Non-programmers can design application
screens in a standard drawing-tool mode, connect them to real-time data
sources and animate screen objects to visualize changing data values.  SL-GMS
allows the design of custom "GISMOs" to input values or control the
application and supports MOTIF, OPEN LOOK and other X toolkit widgets.

SL-GMS is used extensively to provide real-time graphics for applications in
the fields of manufacturing, process control, network management, avionics and
financial tracking.

Host/Target:Validated Verdix and DEC compilers support SL-GMS for the
    following machines as both host and target:

DEC-DECstation/ULTRIX 4.0DEC-VAXstation/ULTRIX 4.0
DEC-VAXstation/VMS 5.4  DEC-VAXstation/VMS 5.5


HP-9000/300/UNIX        HP-9000/400/UNIX
HP-9000/800/UNIX        HP-9000/700/UNIX

PC-386/IX UNIX          PC-386/SCO UNIX
PC-386/Lynx             PC-386/0S2
PC-386/System 5.4


Sun-3/SunOS 4.1         SunSPARC/SunOS 4.1

88 Open/BCS Compliant

For more information, contact:
    Mike Meagher, SL Corporation, 240 Tamal Vista
    Boulevard, Corte Madera, CA  94926, USA Phone: (415)
    927-1724; Fax: (415) 927-2931

Sunrise Software International                         (Updated:  May 1992)

Sunrise Software International's product, ezx, is a rapid application
development tool that automates the creation of graphical user interfaces for
OSF/MOTIF and generates C, UIL, or Ada.  ezx provides WYSIWYG screen layout;
color, font and pixmap editors; presentation tools and dialog management.  A
prototype can be developed in hours and using a script language similar to
Hypertalk, demonstrated to end-users before the first line of code is written.
Then portable C, UIL or Ada can be generated automatically.  Ada bindings are
provided.  The total code required to develop a GUI is reduced by
approximately 75%.   The appearance and behavior of the GUI is defined in an X
resource file which the application loads at run time.  This provides explicit
separation between the GUI and the computational core of the application. Thus
the GUI can be revised without recompiling (and retesting) the application.

ezx provides cost savings throughout the software development cycle, from
requirements analysis through design, code, test and maintenance.

Host/Target:DEC RISC under ULTRIX, DEC VAX under VMS, IBM 386 under UNIX, IBM
    RS 6000 under AIX, SGI under, SUN SPARC under UNIX

For more information, contact:
    Frederick Sells, Sunrise Software International,
    170 Enterprise Center, Middletown, RI  02840, USA;
    Phone:  401-847-7868

Systems Engineering Research Corporation (SERC)     (Updated:  November 1992)

Subject: 235)  Is there an Ada binding for Motif? (Part 2 of 2)
[Last modified: Apr 94 ]

Answer: (This answer hasn't changed since the date given, but I needed to
break it into 2 parts.)

SERC's Ada/MOTIF is a complete binding to X Window and OSF/Motif for the Ada
programming language that was based in part upon the SAIC/Unisys (STARS)
public domain bindings.  That work was leveraged as a starting point for this
development; many of the bug fixes and additional capabilities beyond the
public domain releases in Ada/MOTIF have been incorporated.  Most noteworthy
are the capabilities included in Ada/Motif for Ada tasking, callback
registration, memory leak detection/prevention and capabilities for developing
customized widgets.  Paramax/STARS considers Ada/Motif to be the commercial
version of their STARS bindings, according to SERC.

Ada/MOTIF is supported by the ALSYS, VERDIX, SUNAda, IBM Ada, and SGI Ada

Host/Target:SUN 4, HP 300/400, HP 700, IBM RS 6000, SGI, 386
    SUN OS 4.1.1, SOLARIS 2.0 (coming), HPUX 8.0, SGI 3.2 & 4.0, IBM
    ATX 3.2, SCO 3.2

For more information, contact:

Theo Kusiolek or Scott Cleveland, Systems Engineering Research Corporation
(SERC), 2555 Charleston Road, Mountain View, CA  94043, USA; Phone:  800-ADA-
SERC or 415/962-9092; Fax:  415/962-0330; E-mail:  Well!

TeleSoft                                            (Updated:  November 1992)

TeleSoft's TeleUSE/Ada automates the creation of OSF/Motif graphical user
interfaces for Ada applications.  It includes a special version of the TeleUse
User Interface Management System -- which generates Ada source code -- and Ada
bindings to the TeleUSE run-time routines.

TeleUse/Ada tools allow a GUI to be prototyped and designed using a WYSIWYG
editor and a PDL, and also includes tools for debugging, generating production
code and maintaining the GUI.  TeleUse/Ada can save the developer up to 90
percent of the time required to hand code X Window System GUIs.

Host/Target:SPARC under UNIX, Sun-4 under UNIX

TeleSoft's TeleWindows is a set of Ada bindings to the X Window System and
OSF/Motif.  This includes Xlib, XT, X extensions Library, XT+, X miscellaneous
utilities, Motif widget set, XM, MWM, Motif resource manager.  It supports X-
11 R4 and is not based on the public domain version.  It closely follows the C
Xlib syntax and allows Ada applications to co-exist with C applications.

Host/Target:IBM System/370 under VM/CMS

For more information, contact:
    Karen Johnson, TeleSoft, 5959 Cornerstone Court
    West, San Diego, CA  92121-9891, USA; Phone:  (619) 457-2700

Verdix                                              (Updated:  May 1992)

The Verdix Ada Development System (VADS), is a complete Ada Compiler System
offering a fully validated Ada compiler with chapter 13 support.  Verdix
supplies VADSself and VADScross.   VADSself provides a complete toolset for
self-targeted applications.  It easily interfaces to databases, windowing
systems and program management tools.  VADScross provides real-time support
for host-to-target system development.  VADScross produces small and fast
object code.  VADS is hosted on the largest number of platforms and targets
the greatest number of microprocessors.

Host/Target:88000 BCS under UNIX, DEC VAX under VMS / ULTRIX / UNIX,
    DECStation (RISC) under UNIX, DECSystem (RISC) under UNIX, HP 9000
    Series 300 under HP-UX  (UNIX), IBM PS/2 under AIX  (UNIX), IBM
    RISC System/6000 under AIX, SCO Systems V/386 (ABI) under UNIX,
    Sun SPARC systems under UNIX, Sun-3 systems under UNIX

Verdix AXI provides an Ada binding to the full Motif, Xt, and Xlib libraries.
The product works with user-supplied Motif 1.1 and X11R4 libraries regardless
of source.

Host/Target:DEC RISC under Ultrix, IBM RS6000 under AIX, MIPS under MIPSos,
    Sun-4 under SunOS, Sys V386 under ISC UNIX, Sys V386 under SCO

For more information, contact:
    Tim Ruhe, Verdix Corporation, 205 Van Buren,
    Herndon, VA  22070, USA; Phone:  (703) 318-5800

Answer: Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. (ICS) supplies Ada bindings to
Motif for a number of platforms and Ada compilers.  ICS also provides Builder
Xcessory, a Motif interface builder, which outputs Ada code usable with the
Ada bindings.  The product family is known collectively as the Ada Xcessories.

Integrated Computer Solutions, Inc. (ICS) 201 Broadway, Cambridge, MA  02139
USA   617/621-0060

Subject: 236)  Is there a Poplog binding for Motif?
[Last modified: May 93]

Answer: A integrated programming environment consisting of the programming
languages Pop-11, Prolog, Standard ML, and Lisp which are compiled to machine
code via a common virtual machine. Pop-11 provides a rich interface to the X
Toolkit which can be accessed from all other Poplog languages. The OLIT,
Motif, and Athena widget sets are supported, in addition to the custom Poplog
(Xpw) widget set. XVed provides a sophisticated, customisable multi-window
editor. Under OPEN LOOK and Motif the Poplog User Interface (PUI) provides a
graphical interface to the Poplog system. High-level Pop-11 libraries allow
graph drawing, turtle graphics, and the simple creation of basic button/menu
based interfaces.


Poplog Sales. School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences.
Brighton. BN1 9QN. England.
Phone: +44 (0)273 678188
Computable Functions Inc. 35 South Orchard Drive. Amherst.
MA 01002. USA.
Phone: (413) 253-7637
Integral Solutions Ltd. Unit 3, Campbell Court. Bramley.
Basingstoke. Hampshire. RG26 5EG. England.
Phone:  +44 (0)256 882028
Fax:    +44 (0)256 882182
Email:  isl@integ.uucp


Subject: 238)  Is it easy to build Motif for a Sun?

Answer: See next question for Solaris 2.  No pattern has emerged to problems
about compiling Motif on the Sun (although people seem to have a lot of
different minor problems), and many reports are that it is straightforward.
Read the Motif install instructions (which often have specific reference to
Sun installation), light the blue touch paper and just standback. [My
experience was that I had to add -D_NO_PROTO for 1.1 on a Sparc OS 4.1, and
that was all.  Others have added STRINGS_ALIGNED and NO_REGEXP].

Subject: 239)  How do I build Motif 1.2.2 on Solaris 2.1 with Sun C?
[Last modified: Oct 94]

Prepared by Ric Steinberger.  4/09/93

What follows is a description of the steps I used to build Motif 1.2.2 on a
SUN IPX running Solaris 2.1.  Sun's C compiler (2.0.1) was used.  Many thanks
go to Kaleb Keithley ( for several useful
suggestions.  Other people, including OSF staff, especially David Brooks
(, helped as well.  My thanks to you all.

1. Build X11R5 from the mit distribution.  You need to retrieve the sources
from (in pub/R5) and patches 1 - 22 (or fixes 1-26) pub/R5/fixes).
There are several other sites that contain the X11R5 sources.  After
installing patch 19, apply PEXlib.tar.Z, also available from in
pub/R5/fixes.  You can apply also R5.Xsun.multi-screen and R5.SunOS5.patch.
There are .README files that explain how to patch.  Be SURE to read
R5.SunOS5.patch.README for details on how to BUILD X11.  You probably want to
use the ProjectRoot feature in the site.def file in the mit/config directory.
You will NEED to edit that file to do that.

2. Obtain the Motif 1.2.2 distribution from OSF (617-621-7300).  You may need
to first install the 1.2 tape, then the 1.2.1 and finally the 1.2.2 tape.  You
might want to do a "chmod -R u+w ." after unloading each tape.

3. In the config directory, there are several changes.  Some of the changes
are based on R5.SunOS5.patch files.  A complete set of config files relevant
to Solaris have been placed in the anon-ftp account of in
pub/motif/solaris21-motif122-config.tar.Z.  They are also available from OSF
on their mail response server (available to support contract holders) and they
will send them directly to full support contract holders.  Decompress and
untar this file in your Motif config subdirectory.  Copy site.def.sample to
site.def, then edit site.def.  You will probably want to uncomment the
ProjectRoot section and use the same value used in your X11R5 build.  Also,
you will probably want to use /usr/ucb/install in you installed the UCB
compatibility suite.  Otherwise you might want to use the install supplied at
the end of this memo.  [I used the UCB version and can't swear that this
works.  Bit it should.  Put it someplace like /usr/local/bin and chmod +x it.]

There are two patches to consider.  One fixes a cursor problem in
./lib/Xm/TextF.c.  The other removes a Berkeleyism.  These patches should
probably be consider unofficial at present.  Failure to deal with the
Berkeleyism (bzero) means you will need to link with -lucb -lelf.  This will
probably work, but why bother?  Furthermore, if you move the Motif binaries to
a machine without the ucb compatability suite, you won't have the sharable
libs you need.

[The actual patches have been censored because they contain OSF source code]

Patch 1: In TextF.c there are several places _XmTextFieldDrawInsertionPoint is
called. These should be moved two or three lines further down *after* the "if
(!XtIsRealized(tf)) return True;" statement.

patch 2: The call to bzero in lib/Xm/Visual.c should be replaced by the
equivalent call to memset

Both these patches can be applied in the ./lib/Xm directory.  If you don't
have the patch program (how did you build X11?), you can get it in the
vendor/cygnus directory of, or you can build it from source.  Be
sure to get the latest version (2.0.12.u8).

4) Use the README-1.2.1 file as a guideline for building motif.  I followed
directions in the section called, "Using X11R5 Installed Libraries and Header
Files."  If you make a mistake after your first build attempt, copy
Makefile.ini to Makefile before retrying.  You may need to do this in the
config subdirectory too, depending on what went wrong.

5) After make Makefiles, do make includes, make depend, then make (or as OSF
recommends, make -k).  This gets as far as motifshell in the demos, which
fails to build because O_RDONLY and L_XTND are not defined.  O_RDONLY is in
fcntl.h (actually <sys/fcntl.h>, but fcntl.h includes this.)  L_XTND can be
replaced by SEEK_END.  SEEK_END is in stdio.h.  These two fixes will allow
motifshell to build.  Note: many MANY compiler warning messages will be
generated during the build process.

6) You can go to the demos/xmsamplers directory and do a make there.  Other
demos may build, or not depending on whatever. . . .

7) make install will do the install.  [It will fail at motifshell if you don't
fix it, as mentioned above.]  You can do a make install in demos/xmsamplers if
you want these.

8) If running on a SUN (as opposed to an X term), you will (probably) need to
start openwin with something like:

openwin -server /usr/X11R5/bin/Xsun

[You might want to use an alias for this.] This fixes an annoying problem: The
mouse keys stop working after you click on an icon to get the icon menu (on
SUNs only, not X terms).  The ALT keys still work, if you get stuck.  I don't
know whether this is a bug in SUN's server or whether it is Motif related.

Here is a copy of my .xinitrc:  It's not elegant.  Sun's default openwin
startup file is in: /usr/openwin/lib/Xinitrc.  You can copy this to ~/.xinitrc
and customize as desired.  Obviously, the default behavior is to start the
OpenLook environment (boo!).

# .xinitrc - OpenWindows startup script.
if [ -f $HOME/.Xdefaults ]; then
xrdb $HOME/.Xdefaults              # Load Users X11 resource database
if [ -f $HOME/.Xdefaults.sun ]; then
xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xdefaults.sun
export DISPLAY
xhost + > /dev/null
#xterm -sb -sl 512 -T `hostname` -ls -n `hostname` &
xterm -sb -sl 512 -T `hostname` -n `hostname` &
mwm &
xclock -geometry +1010+0 &
xload -geometry +710+5 -fg red &
xsetroot -solid salmon &
xterm -sb -sl 100 -T CONSOLE_DO_NOT_LOGOUT -C -n console -iconic

Here's .Xdefaults.sun, which gives me a more readable font for use with
motif on Sun monitors:

!Some additional .Xdefaults values specifically for SUN
! After loading .Xdefaults, xrdb -merge .Xdefaults.sun
Mwm*fontList:           8x16
!Mwm*fontList:          vtbold
!Change as desired.

You will probably want to maintain LD_LIBRARY_PATH to something like:
/usr/openwin/lib.  If you use emacs, you will need to leave /usr/openwin/lib
there.  [This is because you probably, like me, used the distributed version
of s-sol2.h, which explicitly refers to windowing libraries as being in the
/usr/openwin locations.  Yes, I know that emacs/Solaris ought to allow to be "picked up" from elsewhere, like /usr/X11R5/lib, but the
one emacs links with is, and the mit one is  So it seems to want the .4 one.  Any comments?  I'd
prefer not to rebuild emacs based on the X11R5 libs because I occassionally
need to move the emacs binaries to machines without the mit files.]

Subject: 240)  What compile errors/warnings might I get in both Sun 3 and Sun


make: Warning: Too many rules defined for target
make: Warning: Too many rules defined for target
"callbacks.c", line 1530: warning: illegal combination of pointer
and integer, op =
"callbacks.c", line 1531: warning: illegal combination of pointer
and integer, op =
"callbacks.c", line 1532: warning: illegal combination of pointer
and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 73: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 74: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 122: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 123: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 191: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 194: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 195: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 196: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 316: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 334: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 338: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"utils.c", line 341: warning: illegal combination of pointer and integer, op =
"xmdialogs.c", line 838: warning: illegal combination of pointer
and integer, op =
"xmeditor.c", line 1152: warning: illegal combination of pointer
and integer, op =

These warning messages can be ignored. OSF is aware of these warnings.

Subject: 241)  On a Sun 3, what are the mwm startup error messages about?  I

mwm: Invalid accelerator specification on line 7 of
specification string
mwm: Invalid accelerator specification on line 31 of
configuration file

Answer: This is because some Sun keyboards do not have an F10 key and some sun
workstations which have an F10 key do not have X-servers which recognize it.
The F10 key is used by mwm.  If the machine does have an F10 key, the user
should use xmodmap to tell the server it exists.  Otherwise, change the
definition of the DefaultWindowMenu in /usr/lib/X11/system.mwmrc (after
installation) or in /lib/clients/mwm/system.mwmrc (before installation).
Change the accelerator of "Maximize" (it is "Alt<Key>F10)" to something else.
Also, you should change the definition of DEFAULTSYSTEMMENU in the file
/clients/mwm/WmResource.c in a similar fashion.  There is as yet no standard
redefinition for F10.

Subject: 242)  Are there problems making shared libraries on a Sun?

Answer: If you use the -pic option you may run out of offset table space.  use
the -PIC option instead.

You may get the message " Undefined symbol: __XtInherit" when executing
UIL. There is a problem in shared library build when you compare a function
variable to a routine name, but don't call the routine.  Either, you can build
the Xt library nonshared, or you can put a reference to XtToolkitInitialize in
the UIL main program (or even include a module that references it).  The
routine doesn't even have to be called; it just has to be there.

Subject: 243)  Why does the OpenWindows server hangs when I popup a menu with
Button 3?
[Last modified: August 92]

Answer: This is an OpenWindows problem, but if you have Motif source you can
fix your own applications. From Steve Sistare of Thinking Machines Corp.:
"Change the 2 calls to XtGrabButton in RowColumn.c such that ButtonReleaseMask
| ButtonPressMask is passed for the event mask.  Currently, only
ButtonReleaseMask is passed.  Also, change the owner_event argument to FALSE.
" This has not been fixed in Motif as at 1.1.5.

Subject: 244)  Has anyone made shared libraries on an IBM RS/6000?

Answer: [NOTE: This may not a problem any longer; I believe that AIX is now
delivered with shared Xm libraries. If you know the status of this, email]

Sakari Jalovaara wrote: There is a problem: Xm redefines VendorShell and the
AIX linker put _both_ Xm's and Xt's VendorShell into programs.  When an AIX
shared library is created as many references inside the library are resolved
as possible.  If the symbol vendorShellClassRec is defined in libXt and
referenced, say, from a function XtFoo() also in libXt, the "ld" run that
creates the shared library resolves the reference:

XtFoo() -> vendorShellClassRec

Then I create the Motif library that has its own vendorShellClassRec and an
XmBar() function that uses it; libXm will also contain a resolved reference to

XmBar() -> vendorShellClassRec

Finally, I link a program that uses both XtFoo() and XmBar() and the program
will end up with _two_ independent "vendorShellClassRec"s:

XtFoo() -> vendorShellClassRec [Xt version]
XmBar() -> vendorShellClassRec [Xm version]

Instant schizo zaphod mode.  In reality, vendorShellClassRec is not referenced
from functions but from other widget class records.

I can't just pull Vendor.o out from the shared Xt (Vendor.o appears to define
the only external symbols redefined by libXm) because AIX shared libraries
apparently can't contain unresolved external references.  If I take out
Vendor.o I have to take out every other file that uses symbols defined there -
and then files that need those files, etc.  I tried it and ended up with three
or four object files in libXt and the res non-sharable.

I kludged around this by putting all of libXt (minus Vendor.o) into the shared
libXm.  It isn't a pretty solution but it works - and beats having a
statically linked two-megabyte "periodic" demo...

Subject: 245)  What is the error  "Unaligned access in XmString" under Ultrix?

Answer: Compile XmString.c with STRINGS_ALIGNED.

Subject: 246)  Can bugs in Sun's OpenWindows server cause Motif clients to
[Last modified: Oct 95]

Answer: Yes.  Patch 100444-73 (or later) from Sun fixes most of these bugs.
Alternatively, you can compile and run the X11R6 sample server from MIT.  See
the SunSolve web page:

Ken Lee and Bob Cox,

Subject: 247)  Why does Motif on Linux crash when I open a file selection box?
[Last modified: Oct 98]

Answer: Make sure you use a libc that is compatible with your Motif.
Unfortunately, Linux libc is not binary compatible from release to release.
Older versions of Motif require libc 4.6.27.  Some newer Motifs need libc5;
others need glibc.

Ken Lee,

Subject: 248)  Are there compatibility problems between some Linux Motif
libraries and libc5 or glibc?
[Last modified: Oct 98]

Answer: Yes.  People have reported problems with the file selection box and
also with the OSF keysyms.

The problem is that some newer Linux packages (e.g., Red Hat 5.0) use glibc
(library and associated header files), which is not binary compatible with the
older libc5.  Some newer Motif libraries use glibc, while older ones will use
libc5.  Similarly the XFree and other libraries will be based on either libc5
or glibc.  You must make sure you use one other the other consistently for all
your applications and libraries.  The better Motif vendors should have an
upgrade strategy in place to help you with the transition.

This is a general problem that the Linux community is dealing with.  If you
can't get the correct version information from your Motif vendor, the Linux
Usenet newgroups should be able to help you out.

Ken Lee,

Subject: 249)  How can I install Motif on my PC?
[Last modified: Jun 98]

Answer: There's a paper on this in the September, 1995 issue of *The X

A 1996 update to this article is available at:

Ken Lee


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