Linux, like most UNIX-like operating systems, expects a serial console to be connected to a dumb modem. Dumb modems are not seen much these days, perhaps only on exotic hardware such as ISDN terminal adapters or satellite ground terminals.
A dumb modem is configured using hardware. Figure 12-1 shows the front panel of a fanciful dumb modem. In reality the speed and mode settings are likely to be done using jumpers or DIP switches.
Figure 12-1. Front panel of a dumb modem
+-----------------------------+ | | | SPEED MODE | | [ ] 300 [ ] Originate | | [ ] 600 [X] Answer | | [ ] 2400 | | [X] 9600 | | | +-----------------------------+
The modem's speed is set to the desired bit rate, in our case 9600bps. The modem's mode is set to Answer, that is, to wait for incoming calls and to answer them.
If the RS-232 control line Data Terminal Ready is low, the modem will not answer a call. The computer is off or the computer's serial interface is not yet initialized. Once DTR is high the modem will answer incoming calls.
Once an incoming call is established the modem raises the Data Carrier Detect control line. Only when DCD is high is received data valid (data receieved from a dumb modem when DCD is not asserted is probably line noise). Only when DCD is high is transmitted data passed through the link.
getty on the Linux computer has been waiting for DCD to come high, and getty welcomes the user and requests them to log in.
Whilst the user is logged in and data is flowing, Clear to Send and Ready to Send are used between the modem and the computer to prevent data being sent too soon. The computer lowers Ready to Send when it is too busy to receive a character. The modem lowers Clear to Send when it is too busy to receive a character.
When the user hangs up, Data Carrier Detect falls and the hang up signal is sent to all processes associated with the dial in session.
Alternatively, the user can log out. When the shell dies, the computer pulls Data Terminal Ready low, causing the modem to hang up. When the getty brings Data Terminal Ready high again, the modem will accept more incoming calls.
We have not yet described Data Set Ready. This line is low if the modem is off or if the modem has not yet initialized. When DSR is low all other signals from the modem are undefined. For example, if DSR is low but DCD "floats" to the high voltage then software should behave as if DCD is not asserted.
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Created 1996-2023 by Maxim Chirkov
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